About Me

Hi I’m Kate, mom, wife, sister, dietitian, runner, dog lover & foodie. I am passionate about digestive health nutrition and the low FODMAP diet!

I grew up in a small suburb of Boston—the youngest of nine. My dad was an “off the boat” German immigrant and my mom an Irish girl from Rhode Island. I married my high school sweetheart, Russell T. I love food—love making it, love shopping for it, love eating it…and often can be found creating a new low FODMAP recipe! I began my career in nutrition at Simmons College in Boston and finished with my postgraduate training at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital, a Harvard Medical School teaching affiliate.

I am a New York Best Selling Book co-author, with my book 21 Day Tummy that helps people manage common digestive health issues AND lose weight. If I am not giving a talk about FODMAPs or cooking and blogging FODMAPs then you might find me counseling a patient about the low FODMAP diet. Otherwise, I enjoy running with my husband and dog, Lucy, relaxing with my kids or traveling the globe.

442 thoughts on “About Me

  1. Hi Kate, It was pleasure to meet you today. I look forward to working with you and loseing and getting my blood sugar low and in control hopefully I may be able to get off insulin if I lose enough weight. Could you please email the grocery list. My email is esterina.dicerbo@emc.com

  2. Hi Kate: Your website has been a huge help to me and I carry your “shopping list” with me everywhere. I purchase your book off Amazon and it mentioned bringing high fiber snack bars and cereal when I am traveling – can you suggest any brands higher in fiber? I am having trouble staying regular.

    Thank you,

    1. So glad you find the site helpful! I usually make homemade ones with oats, oat bran, sunflower seeds, some almond butter or peanut butter and maple syrup–there is a recipe in my book. The store brands tend to have FODMAP ingredients such as inulin (chicory root), wheat, or too rich in fruits (excess fructose). Other tips for increasing fiber, oat bran or rice bran added to oatmeal, whole white potatoes with skin, blueberries, strawberries, quinoa flakes, and some gluten free pasta blends can be a good source too.

      1. Kate,
        Is there a specific rule on probiotics for fructose malabsorption with constipation? I’ve read some say no to probiotics and others say yes you should have probiotics. I was planning to make the SCD yogurt with the advisable strains of bacteria through Elaine Gotshall’s website. Any advise would be appreciated. We’ve had allergy testing done on my daughter through an allergist locally, to see if she has a milk protein or soy allergy and both the blood and skin tests come back saying she has no milk or soy protein allergy. We also had a skin test for wheat allergy and that was negative and celiac came back negative, but I know she has some problems with wheat when sugar is added to it (fructose load). Also, she had an endoscopy and when they did the biopsies for lactose and discharride enzymes, these all came back stating she did not have deficiencies or damage to these either. All of her bloating, gas, reflux, and regurgitation have been eliminated with following fructose malabsorption diet, still have the lingering constipation so wanted to know if probiotics SCD legal homemade yogurt is ok? Any advise would be greatly appreciated.

      2. Hi Kate,

        I have bad abdominal pain and bad digestion so have been told by my GI specialist to try the FODMAP diet but he gave me no further information, no meal ideas or anything. Your website has been so insightful so I wondered if I could ask a quick question…
        My favourite meals are chicken, red pepper, beansprout and noodle stir fry, and also fajitas using the el paso fajita spice kit; is there any chance you know if these are still ok for me to eat?

        I am going to see a dietitian, they aren’t a FODMAP dietitian but Im hoping they will be able to help me

      3. Hi Sarah, Chicken, bell pepper, bean sprouts and RICE noodles would make a great low FODMAP meal–seasoned with soy sauce, sesame oil and maybe some ginger. The Fajitas–would have wheat tortilla and likely the seasoning would not be okay–you could make a chicken and pepper mixture and season it with chili powder (without onion) and cumin and put the mixture in a soft corn tortilla as a low FODMAP alternative to traditional fajitas. Hope that helps. Kings College London has a list of dietitians that have attended their low FODMAP diet course–so perhaps you could find a knowledgable dietitian to help you out!

  3. I am on the FODMAP diet and I like to know if I am
    allowed to have flax seed or is it better to take
    flax oil?

    I love your site!

    1. I don’t have any research on whether flaxseed has significant FODMAP content. I know many of my non-sensitive stomach clients find it gassy so I would say use with caution. Oils do not contain FODMAPs as FODMAPs are carbohydrates and oil is carbohydrate free, so flax oil would be fine.

      1. Chris, chia seeds are okay on the low FODMAP diet. Up to 2 TB per serving. Flaxseed has not been tested on it’s own. Only part of a mixture called LSA–linseed (flaxseed), sunflower and almond mix…which has a 1 TB limit. So, I would limit flaxseed to no more than 1 TB based on this info.

  4. Hi
    I have been blighted with ibs for nearly a year now and hope that in the New Year, this will all change by following the FODMAP guidelines. I have found your website wonderful and after reading all the information you have offered a “light bulb” moment has given me the incentive I need for the New Year.
    Am resident in the UK but hope with the aid of the Internet, that i will succeed.

  5. Hi Kate
    IN need of advice, have suffered IBS for years and have now came across Low Fodmap Diet, problem is everything I love is on the bad for you sheet (onions and garlic) which go into most of my dishes. Can you please advise on what I could use instead.

    1. Hi Alison:
      Of course–you can add flavor with the green part of a spring onion (scallion) and chives. Adds nice onion flavor without the side effects! For garlic, infuse large chunks of garlic in olive oil and use the oil removing the garlic prior to eating. I generally just sauté a bit of oil with garlic, remove garlic and cook whatever I want the garlic flavor in that oil.

      1. Thanks Kate for quick reply, would this mean I could use the green part of leeks too, not an easy job eliminating foods that I have spent years cooking with esp in family favourite recipes (lentil soup, chilli, bolognese)

      2. I have not seen any research on the green part of leeks. To be safe, I would suggest avoid. Of course, lentils and beans are eliminated on the ‘elimination’ phase of the diet. This diet is not designed to be followed for life per se, you go on the elimination phase for 6-8 weeks and then try to re-challenge foods. Many of my clients can do small amounts of garlic with no major symptoms. Be sure to follow diet with dietitian knowledgeable in it’s details!

  6. Thanks Kate, sorry have posted on wrong part of your site.
    I will look into this further and start to keep a food diary which has been suggested, look forward to your views in future.

  7. Your website has Rasperries on the high FODMAP list, can you please confirm this for me?

    I have been looking at many websites and all those I’ve seen have put rasperries on the low fodmap list!!

    Many thanks if you can help.


    1. Louise: US data has raspberries as a source of excess fructose. Aussie studies have them as not a source of excess fructose. For now- I am sticking with the US data. The diet is still evolving and there may be slight changes to come.

    2. i have IBS and enjoy raspberries with home made sponge, my only desert. I keep the raspberries and blue berries frozen and heat them up in water (1/2 cup) and pour over the sponge very tasty. No bad effects ever Yeh :)

      1. Hi. I’m in NZ and have been referring to Monash University’s study on IBS, low FODMAP as they’ve done extensive study which is well recognised. They list pumpkin as low FODMAP. Yay!

        BTW I’m newly diagnosed IBS and have just decided to go onto the elimination phase using FODMAP diet. I had one good week but a relapse yesterday (this could be due to eating an Anzac biscuit with wheat in it 2 days ago). Feeling OK this morning though. I see this site is more about diet etc which is great, but I wondered if I could check out my symptoms with anyone else? What does everyone else feel when they have a bout of IBS? I just wanted to know if what I’m experiencing is pretty much normal? For example, after an episode I feel very very washed out and fatigued with no energy, my eyes go all dull, I feel achey (with a bad backache usually) and the headaches are awful. I feel like I’m on a different planet! These symptoms can come and go for about 3 days with one day that is quite bad (usually in the weekend dammit!)

        Anyway, felt my energy better this week and more myself with the low FODMAP diet and using Metamucil to help. I feel encouraged.

        BTW I haven’t eliminated lactose yet, and still use dairy milk as I only about an 1/8 cup a day in my cup of tea, otherwise I use rice milk which is surprisingly nice.


      2. Welcome Rosemary! I follow the Monash Uni info closely. The pumpkin listed okay at Monash is not the pumpkin we used or refer to here in the US. I hope that you are working with a dietitian to help you navigate you with your various symptoms. Sometimes w/ systemic symptoms it’s not only IBS but overlapping conditions that may warrant other interventions.

  8. Love your website! Thank you! I just stumbled upon it last evening-I have been spending a lot of time surfing the web looking for FODMAPS information.

    I am 53 and this is a life long problem. In fact my earliest memories are of excruciating gas pain that no one could help me with.

    I tried elimination diets, dairy, meat, gluten with out much success. The fructose/sugars mal-absorption sounds like the right thing for me. In fact the FODMAP is very similar to the low carbohydrate diet I followed 8 years ago. This was the only time that my symptoms almost all disappeared. I quit that diet as that hubby is a vegetarian.

    We have been concentrating on eating healthily the last five years. Good news cholesterol and triglycerides are great: Gut symptoms are the worst. I have been treated for H pylori almost non stop for the last three years.

    My question is what about soy?…its protein but also a bean. We use TVP a lot. Beans are a major staple in our diet.

    My plan is to cut the fruit,dairy fist and then the gluten. Or is it better to go “full-tilt” and to see improvement?

    1. With the low FODMAP diet it is best to do the full elimination phase at once. It’s also advised that the diet be taught by a dietitian. It is important to do the diet right to see if it is helpful for you. Many internet sites provide old info and the diet is really evolving and changing. Tofu is allowed, not sure about TVP–have to look into that–but soy flour and milk can contain FODMAPS. Are you in the US? Patsy Catsos has an RD registry on her site that lists RD’s that are knowledgeable in the diet guidelines. Her site is IBSfree.net. This diet has been SO therapeutic for so many of my clients…I hope you find the same results.


  9. Hi. I came across your blog while searching for photos of NYC, my home town, for Pinterest. I now live in Miami and my daughter studies in Boston. My dad is also an off-the-boat German by way of Ecuador, where I was born. Anyway, nice to read you, maybe you would like to read my Blog.

  10. My doctor told me on Friday to use the FODMAP diet to help with IBS, but told me to research it, which is how I found your website. Personally, I think it is unfair to tell me to start something “complicated” (his word) and give me no info.
    I know I need to be lactose free, gluten free and frucose free. I looked at labels in the supermarket today and am comfused of what buzzwords I need to look for. For example: Gelato (on the low fodmap list) says it has milk; Lara bars are gluten free but have sugar. Please tell me what ingredients I need stay away from.
    Thank you in advance for any help with this.

    1. Hi Stacy-
      I recommend you meet with a registered dietitian to review the low FODMAP diet in detail. The diet has many little nuances and it’s best to have these reviewed so that you can undertake the diet properly. The low FODMAP diet is not a gluten free or fructose free diet. FODMAPs are carbohydrates and gluten is a protein. But there is certainly overlap of the gluten free diet while on the low FODMAP diet and that is because wheat, barley and rye are gluten rich and also FODMAP rich so are eliminated on both diets. Fructose is modified (not eliminated) on the low FODMAP diet, we do limit high fructose foods (foods with extra fructose compared to glucose) For instance, blueberries have more glucose than fructose, so they are allowed on the diet. Apples and honey have excess fructose compared to glucose so are not allowed.

      Label reading tips: Here is a few tips to get you started–> avoid ingredients such as apple, pear, cherries, apricot, wheat, onion, garlic, honey, agave, inulin, FOS, milk…for starters. So if a food item says gluten free but is loaded with garlic or honey, it would not be suitable for you.
      Hope that helps…but do try to connect with a dietitian knowledgeable in the diet.

  11. Thank you!
    I am going to call my insurance company tomorrow to find a nutritionist.
    By looking online, I thought I needed to be gluten and frucose free. It is frustrating trying to figure this out by myself.

  12. Hi Kate,
    Thank you so much for this site and your book. I have been suffering with IBS and gastritis for 15 years now. I’m really hoping this diet will be the solution to my problems. I live in RI and am trying to find a dietitian. My health insurance (United Healthcare)is unable to break RDs down by specialty. Do you have any suggestions for Rhode Island patients? I checked IBSfree.net but they only have MA dietitans. Any guidance here would be greatly appreciated.

    1. There seems to be a shortage of FODMAP knowledgable RD’s and I wish that was not the case. I would call the local hospitals and ask for the outpatient nutrition department and ask the staff if anyone is familiar with the low FODMAP diet. I am co-hosting a workshop with Patsy (IBSfree.net) to educate RD’s so hopefully we will get some RD’s from RI to come to the workshop and learn more about the diet.


    2. Hi Olivia, I just saw your comment and wanted to let you know I have had severe gastritis for many years with horrible horrible pain, and a few weeks ago started using something called vitamin U… It’s been a miracle for me, I’ve had no pain since and it was at its worst when I started using it. I hope you’ll check it out… It really has worked for me! I got it online from uniflora…you should be able to google their website. Good luck! Sincerely………… Meg

    1. No it would not. Soy beans are a big source of GOS, one of the FODMAP groups. Peanut butter is your best bet. Use all natural peanut butter without added ingredients and that is also gluten and dairy free :)

    2. Stacy, not sure if I replied? …I like all natural peanut butter such as Smucker’s or Teddie brand. Check ingredients, for low FODMAP diet try to pick one with simple ingredients such as peanuts and perhaps salt. That’s it.

  13. Hello, I have also found your website whilst researching the FODMAP diet, recommended by my gastroenterologist. I have read what peolpe wrote, and I too was given the name of the diet, and nothing else. I asked about a dietician and was told I would be written to – but it has been three months: know I won’t be written to. IBS is not an illness the NHS takes seriously! So I thought I would help myself, and your website has been great. I have 2 questions: 1. 70% dark chocolate contains sugar, as opposed to fructose, so is it ok? In small quantities obviously:)I was on the SCD before, where soya was banned (along a long list of di/polysaccharides, and chocolate, as you know). 2. A fodmap list I retrieved from the Australian researchers’ website allows soya, but you do not. Is it best to avoid it? Thank you!

    1. Not all soy needs to be eliminated on the low FODMAP diet. For instance, some soy milks in the UK are deemed suitable for the low FODMAP diet per the Kings College literature such as Alpro-unsweetened long life or Original chilled or So Good products, also tofu is low in FODMAPs. Soybeans and flours should be avoided. I believe a small amount of dark chocolate would be fine…although I have not seen definitive research on it. Try this link for UK dietitian contacts.

  14. Thank you Kate for your prompt answer! The link did not work but thank you anyways, I will look into Kings College’s research papers.

  15. I bought Lara bars that said “gluten free and dairy free” which I assume are fine on the FODMAP diet. Are cheddar and mozzerella cheese slices fine to have? What about Lactaid ice cream? I have been buying So Delicious.

    Thank you in advance for your responses.

    1. Lara bars often contain other FODMAPs fruits so I would avoid for now. Cheddar and mozzarella are low in FODMAPs. The lactaid vanilla looks okay…but food with added gums can be a little gassy so try small portion to assess tolerance.

      1. Dates are in the bars which I imagine aren’t ok. I got so excited to see gluten and dairy free!

  16. Any suggestions for morning snack? I usually eat peanut butter crackers (I know that isn’t the best idea) at 8:00 and have oatmeal at 10. Since I don’t have lunch until 12:40, sometimes I need something and eat more crackers. I am a classroom teacher and am limited on snack and lunch time. When I eat something at a different time, I do so when the kids arent’ looking. I would appreciate any ideas.

  17. I’ve been diagnosed with IBS & GERD and also struggle with anorexia. I get severe gas & bloating (look almost 6 months pregnant most of the time). I started the low Fodmap diet about 2 months ago and it seems to be helping, although I still get bloated when I eat almost anything, but not near as bad as it used to be. The only time I see a flat stomach is when I get diarrhea or go for a long time without eating. I did have a lactose, fructose, and gluten test that all came back negative. Should I only be restricting the fructans/GOS & polyols? Do you think it’s ok to eat foods that contain milk & HFCS?

    1. Kaylee-
      Please be sure to seek medical help with your history of anorexia. Although this site provides some tools to follow the low FODMAP diet it should not be used as a substitute of medical advice.

    2. Hi Kaylee, I just saw your comment and my heart’s with you… It’s hard to find professional help for eating disorders with knowledge and sensitivity to digestive issues…! I really struggled with this and am sending love your way…! Please read a book called Gut and Psychology Syndrome by Natasha Campbell McBride if you can, make sure it’s the latest issue with the chapter on eating disorders… This book and her philosophy really overlap with FODMAPs and you may find it helpful….

      Hope it’s okay to post this here…….Natasha’s book really helped me.
      …Best wishes, Megan

  18. ALLCANEAT biscotti, chocolate chip – gluten & dairy free. Sorry, I thought you created the recipe. It’s been so long since I could eat a cookie and not feel sick. They are delicious. Whole Foods carries them, sometimes.

    1. No Susan that is their recipe and I believe that bakery closed recently which is disappointing. :( Other tasty cookies include Alexia’s and Gilberts brand–many varieties are low in FODMAPs.

  19. I love your site! Thank you so much for sharing these resources. I am a fellow RD. I am trying to download the pdf versions of “low FODMAPS grocery list” and “FODMAPS checklist” but the link to the pdf does not appear to work. I was able to click the link for the pdf of “10 things you may not know…” and save that one. So, I don’t think it’s a problem with my computer. Can you send me the pdf of the 2 files aforementioned? Thanks!

  20. I saw a nutritionist last week who said that I can eat Italian Ice, but when I looked at the ingredients it has corn syrup. Can I eat it? Also, she said to chew gum with sugar, but I can’t find any, it is all sugarless. Any suggestions?

    1. Stacy, I am not a big fan of Italian Ice as it is very high in sugar. Too much sugar can be an issue for some. Even though sugar is technically ‘fodmap friendly’…too much contributes too much fructose. The thought is that too much fructose even with adequate glucose can be malabsorbed, this notion is called the fructose load concept.
      I haven’t looked at gums in a while but check out Beeman’s by Cadbury–I think that fits the criteria.

  21. I searched online and found Glee Gum from Trader Joe’s. Do you know anything about it?
    Any ice cream suggestions besides So Delicious?


    1. Stacy-I am not definitively sure about the Glee gum but it appears to be low in FODMAPs–it is primarily cane sugar and glucose. Breyer’s lactose free vanilla ice cream. I would also check out some of the almond and coconut milk based ice creams that are popping up at many grocery stores! Always check ingredients to be sure the products do not contain other FODMAPs.

  22. I am adopting a Fodmaps diet to help alleviate IBS, your high polyols suggest that pumpkin is to be avoided, but in Australia I am able to eat this. Is it the variety different? Many thanks

  23. I have recently been told I am IBS and to follow the Fodmap diet. So if there is an overlap with gluten-free (being both protein & carb),would it still be better to delete it altogether? I have just been travelling in UK & France with very little gluten-free on the menus (but salads!) so glad to be back in OZ for more options.

    1. Wendy,
      The low FODMAP diet and the gluten free certainly have some overlap but you don’t need to be completely gluten free on the low FODMAP diet. When traveling sometimes starting with the gluten free items and then ensure there is no other fodmap ingredient may be a good start…but it’s not necessary to go completely gluten free when trying the low FODMAP diet for IBS.

  24. Just was advised to begin the FODMAP diet by my GI doctor. Looks like a challenge, but worth the effort. A few questions I can’t seem to find answers for…how long until I will feel the results? What about my glass of red wine? Best items to order when eating out?

    1. Welcome Ellen to the world of FODMAPs–It can be challenging so I always encourage people to visit with a registered dietitian to help them navigate the diet and ensure that they are eating a nourishing and balanced diet and following the diet correctly. Alcohol is a gastrointestinal irritant so limit to 1 glass dry red wine–cabernet or merlot are generally tolerated by my clients.
      Results are often felt within the first week or two but some take a bit longer. Try salads with plain chicken, beef or fish, baked potato with butter when dining out. Choose salad dressings such as oil and vinegar rather than Italian that often has garlic and onion both FODMAP no-no’s.

  25. I promise I won’t keep asking questions….but I can’t find information about juices (fresh or V-8), and about dark chocoloate (just a little?)

    1. V-8 has beets and celery which do have some FODMAPs so I would not try it on the elimination phase of the diet. You could try a splash (1/3 cup or less) of orange juice in a recipe or in club soda if carbonation doesn’t bother you. Chocolate is officially being tested by the Monash team at the moment but their lab was moved along with the equipment so the testing was at a standstill from what I understand. My clients have been able to tolerate small amounts of semi-sweet chocolate chips and dark chocolate–but we’ll know for sure soon..I hope!!

  26. What juices, liquids, other than water, is best? Iced tea, I assume, but pomegranate or other juices to mix with mineral water? Have you heard about the medication Amitiza being used with this diet?

    1. A splash of orange juice in mineral water would be okay. Simple black tea iced in small portion should be okay. I have had clients use amitiza with the low FODMAP diet.

      1. Thank you so much for your quick response and help. Don’t know what I would have done without your guidance during this initial stage. Everyone in my “neck of the woods” is stumped when I mention the FODMAP approach…but a local health food store said they would research and help me with products. The Amitiza is not a fun drug to take….thinking I will go with just the FODMAP for a while. Thanks again for all your help. How do I order the cookbook? through this site?

    2. Hi Ellen,

      I tried Amitiza several months ago (my IBS symptoms seems to switch from IBS-C to IBS-D with no explanation as to why) I experienced severe tightness in the chest and nausea while taking it and had to discontinue after only a few days. Not a great experience with this drug. I know you said you were going to stop taking taking it and try just low fodmap instead, any luck?

    1. Stacey-Are you referring to Van’s Gluten free waffles? If so, many sweetened with fruit juice including pear so NOT low FODMAPs! BUT…I do love the idea of GF waffles with lactose free ice cream and strawberries…yuuuuuummmm.

  27. Hi,
    I’m a vegan and am about to try the Fodmap elimination diet. Two questions: 1) Am I going to be able to maintain a healthy level of nutrition and still remain a vegan? 2) I use guar gum and xantham gum as a substitute for eggs in baking, are they OK on the diet?

    Many Thanks

    1. It is a bit more challenging to do the low FODMAP diet while vegan as many of the beans/legumes are high FODMAP. I would recommend trying tofu, peanut butter and quinoa as good low FODMAP vegan protein sources. Try using canned beans in small amounts and if you soak and drain a few times you will reduce the FODMAP content further as the GOS found in beans are water-soluble so some will leach out into the water and be drained off. From what I understand, small amounts of xantham gum and guar gum are ok but can contribute to gas so go easy with quantity. I hear the new Monash University low FODMAP booklet which should be released soon will include some vegetarian tips so perhaps we will learn more about doing the low FODMAP diet while vegan.

      1. Thanks for your comprehensive reply,Kate. Have just started diet today and am going to do your veg. chop suey for dinner. Was just wondering about miso and savory yeast – are they fodmap friendly?

        I’ll be glad when the new list comes out from Monash. Will we ‘regular’ people have access to it?

        Thanks again

  28. Is sour cream low FODMAP? What about the new Good n Natural bars that are gluten free? Is Kozy Shak new lactose and gluten free pudding ok to have?

    1. Stacy, I could not find info on the Good n Natural bars–feel free to send a link if you can find ingredients or provide to me here on the blog. The Kozy Shak new lactose and GF puddings–> rice and tapioca looks low fodmap to me… the chocolate one is likely okay but we await definitive thumbs up from Monash team who is testing chocolate now or soon to test. Sour cream has under 1 gram of lactose per 2 TB so is low FODMAp.

  29. I have been eating peanut butter crackers (which aren’t low FODMAP) when I get hungry between meals.
    What can I eat that is high protein and low FODMAP?

    1. I like rice cakes with peanut butter, perhaps topped with a few banana slices and some sliced almonds, or rice crackers with cheddar cheese chunks, or lactose free yogurt with a sprinkle of chia seeds and 1/2 cup blueberries on top (Green Valley lactose free plain or vanilla should be okay). You could also make a small concoction of trail mix with acceptable low FODMAP granola, glutino pretzels, and a handful of peanuts.

    1. I am not a fan of sugar substitutes in general but stevia seems well tolerated –not sure about any long term effects though. Erythritol is a a sugar alcohol (polyol) but seems to be well-absorbed in the intestine so likely not an issue UNLIKE other polyols such as sorbitol and mannitol which are definite FODMAPs and cause GI symptoms for many.

    1. Swiss cheese is low FODMAP, cranberry juice (1 glass) was just added to the low FODMAP shopping guide–in the new Monash University booklet (3rd edition) and Nutella–not really sure–I would imagine small amounts would be okay–it’s mostly sugar and palm sugar–chocolate has not yet been tested–so not that could be a problem. Once you are done with the elimination phase perhaps-you could trial a bit of nutella to assess your tolerance. Of note, some US cranberry juice products contain high fructose corn syrup (UGH!) and these would not be recommended.

  30. A friend’s son has major stomach issues and was told to drink aloe vera juice mixed with juice every morning. He feels better from it.
    Do you know anything about it? If so, does it help IBS?

    1. I know a little about Aloe vera juice. It is used due to its laxative effect for individuals with IBS-C (constipation predominance.) One of the GI docs I refer clients to will occasionally recommend it. Not sure how it fits into the low FODMAP diet though from what I have read it does not seem to be a big source of fructose.

    1. Butternut squash (or butternut pumpkin) is one of those in-between foods similar to sweet corn, green peas, and snow peas the portion size needs to be limited as it is a source of fructan/GOS (not a HUGE source) but enough to keep the portion small –about 1/2 cup serving. So you could enjoy as a small side dish or perhaps topped on a salad or tossed with some rice. I am making coconut rice tonight and will toss in some roasted butternut squash. GREAT question and I am glad you brought it up. I mention portion size in my recipe but I am sure many possibly missed that detail!

    1. Stacy,
      I rarely recommend protein drinks but rather suggest individuals consume calories and protein from low FODMAP whole foods-nuts, seeds, tofu, lactose free milk, chicken, beef, nut butters, lactose free yogurt, small amounts Greek yogurt such as 1/2 cup–most individuals can tolerate 4 grams of lactose per sitting (Chobani is 95% lactose free with about 4-5 grams of lactose per 6 oz and LOTS of protein), quinoa.

      1. I didn’t know Chobani was ok to eat. I assume strawberry and plain would be low fodmap as long as it is 6 oz or less?

  31. hi kate,
    i was wondering if there are any low fodmap bars? also your to eat list includes broccoli. i was under the impression from sue sheppard that the cruciferous vegies should be avoided. what do yu think??


    1. Cruciferous veggies in general do have a fair amount of FODMAPs but the Monash University researchers analyzing foods have found some to have moderate not High levels of FODMAPs so allow small amounts. The broccoli cut off is 1/2 cup so if you wanted to put some in a stir fry that may work. Broccoli has so many health benefits so if you can tolerate the 1/2 cup that is a good thing.
      The majority of granola bars contain FODMAP ingredients. Nature’s Valley Crunchy Peanut Butter looks OK–it does has soy flour but that is toward the end of the ingredient list. Not perfect but probably okay on the run. Macro bars might be tolerated as well…the peanut butter chocolate chip. OR bake your own!! I have a recipe on the blog that you may like. I have not seen the data on chocolate yet but given others tolerance to it, I think that a small amount of semi sweet chocolate chips in my recipe should work…but you can easily delete if you choose too. Here’s my recipe…one of my most popular posts!

  32. Hi Kate,
    I was also at the ICOD in Sydney last month.
    I have just recently learned about the FODMAP diet.
    I run a Nutrition practice professional group here in Shanghai ( like a mothly journal club) only one of the dietitians had heard of the FODMAP ( she is from the UK).
    all the information states the dietitian should be trained in the FODMAP diet. Can you tell me if there is somewhere in the US that offers training?
    Margaret Keefe,RD

  33. I am in the UK and was signposted to your website by the nutritionist at Maggies Online Cancer Centre as I am using the FODMAPS diet to manage my IBS but am finding that my treatment for breast cancer is making this more difficult. I see that you have a recipe for a snack bar and I wondered if you could suggest a way of making a lower fibre version as the Herceptin is speeding my gut up somewhat. It would be so helpful to have something that is easily portable and sustaining when I’m out or visiting the hospital. I find getting suitable food when out pretty difficult.

    Thank you so much for making so much information available, it has been really helpful. My dietician is very good but she had not come across the diet before so we are learning together.

  34. Dear Kate,

    Do you know if reducing FODMAPs in the diet only reduces symptoms attributed to the foods directly after eating them, or if reduction of FODMAPs can ease chronic symptoms such as impaired fat absorption? Many of your posts say to eat something in small amounts if well-tolerated. My doctor suggested trying this diet, but I eat onions (for example) frequently and can go for weeks on a low fat diet without symptoms until I eat something too fatty. Is it thought that FODMAPs alter the gut in a similar way to celiac disease, causing problems absorbing fat, or is that known? If FODMAPs are a problem, would I feel bad immediately after eating high FODMAP foods or do FODMAPs alter the gut in away that causes a chronic problem such as fat malabsorption, or does it just depend on the person?

    Thank you.

    1. Emily-
      Fat malabsorption is linked to a variety of conditions–for example, pancreatic enzyme insufficiency and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. I would encourage you to speak with your gastroenterologist about being evaluated for these conditions if you have not been tested. In small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, bacteria invades your small intestine. When your body secretes bile into your small intestine, bacteria can make the bile inactive–therefore, unable to break down fats–and thus contributes to fat malabsorption. FODMAPs are ‘fast food’ for bacteria so if you go on a low FODMAP you are essentially starving some of the bacteria and hopefully in the long run you could benefit from the diet. The treatment for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth typically is an antibiotic. But is is always important to discover why you got bacteria overgrowth–so your gastroenterologist should explore reasons and treat your body so you don’t get it again (If that is the case for you!) So to answer your question, FODMAPs typically cause symptoms within a few hours BUT for someone susceptible to bacterial overgrowth there may be longer term impact of eating FODMAPs–such as feeding bacteria that ultimately may impact our body in various ways–for example, contributing to fat malabsorption.

  35. I have been diagnosed with GERD & IBS & have found that the only group that seems to bother me is the GOS/fructans, especially onions/garlic & wheat! I love TVP & lentils. I’m about 99% vegetarian. Is TVP still in question? I know you did say to stay away from soy flours. Do you think small amounts of lentils are ok, or are they really high in GOS/fructans? FYI, I loved the carrot cake pancakes!!!

    1. Hi Jayme-
      So glad you like the pancakes…they are so yummy!
      Lentils are in the high FODMAp category but are lower than some legumes such as red kidney beans which are off the charts. If you soak legumes in water and drain and rinse-this will lower FODMAP content.

      Not sure about TVP to be honest….this is a very good question. I know Quorn mince has been tested and low FODMAP when not seasoned with onion/garlic so that is another veggie option.
      Everyone has their own tolerance to FODMAPs–so when you are ready to re-challenge your diet—see what your body can tolerate. Ideally–variety in our diet is key!

  36. I was wondering about Nasoya-fat free nayonaise? I seem to have trouble with garlic & onions, but do ok with small amounts of the powders. Nasoya contains garlic juice.

  37. Hi Kate!
    I LOVE your blog! There is so much helpful info in here! I am an Anxiety Reduction Expert specializing in Digestive Distress, namely IBS. I am ALWAYS asked about eating for IBS…and I believe in reducing FODMAP foods in order to create relief. As a therapist, I know that the mental side to IBS is just one aspect…so it is great to find you! I hope that our paths can continue to cross as I recommend my patients to your site! Thanks again and nice to meet you!

  38. Hello there! Thanks so much for the fantastic website & info. I have a question regarding barley grass & chlorella etc (superfood/alkalising type supplements) are thet low FODMAP? I would love to know if anyone has any info. Many thanks. Trish

  39. Dear Kate, thanks for your wonderful website. I have been troubled by some GI problem that some doctors called it IBS. I have been experimenting with what ought to and not to eat and basically following a low fodmap diet. My findings is that I am fine with some of the high fodmap food you listed such as barley, garlic, mushrooms, pumpkin, green pepper and wheat and not fine with some of the items you listed. Wonder if different bodies have different level of sensitivity to different foods.

    1. Yes, different bodies have different tolerances–perhaps related to what our personal gut bacteria like to consume…
      Perhaps you are more sensitive to the fructose group–apples, mangos and pears?
      The other thing to bear in mind that FODMAPs have a cumulative impact on your symptoms–so perhaps when you eat wheat you only have a small amount but when you consume other FODMAP foods you have more and thus have symptoms?
      Lots of things to consider.

  40. Hello Kate,
    I had my first consultation today with Liz Moore at BIDMC. I have fructose malabsorption and IBS. I am now so encouraged having her and yourself as references. Your blog seems to have so much useful information and I am sure I will learn a lot.

  41. Hi Kate!

    So glad that garbanzo beans can now be eaten in moderation!! What about Fava beans? I love to bake with garfava flour, as it’s a high protein and high fiber gluten-free alternative. What do you recommend?


  42. Hi Kate,

    I have been following the low fodmap diet fairly diligently. I am approaching an onion trial but realized that I’m not really sure what the best way to try out onions would be? Do you have any suggestions for how to approach a trial of onions? I don’t exactly think that eating one raw would be fun but it would rule out any interactions with other foods. How have others you have worked with tried these and in what quantity?


    1. Emily, I have yet to see a patient tolerate onions back in the diet…but it is always worth challenging to see if you tolerate them. I would keep your diet low FODMAP and add in about 1 TB of onion to a meal–say tossed on a salad or in a rice dish. Do this once each day for 3 days and monitor symptoms. If you don’t feel well, stop the challenge. You can then try 1/2 that amount of onion when your symptoms calm down or call the trial a ‘fail’ and move on to your next challenge.

      1. Thanks Kate,

        Do you think I might stand a better chance with a broth or well cooked onions than with raw? Mostly my concern is around avoiding soups and broths and such because of the potential that they contain onions.

        Thanks again for the feedback- your site is wonderful!!

      2. Hard to know if cooking the onions would make much of a difference. I would think perhaps it might. When you are ready to test onions, perhaps try just 2 teaspoons cooked onion or up to 1 tablespoon.

  43. I have been moving my diet more and more to a low fodmap one to try and control my IBS-C. I have been dealing with IBS for over a decade now, and have tried many different treatments…with little success. I was introduced to this diet by my dietitian here in seattle WA, and have seen a reduction in my over all symptoms. Although the diet is helping me in many ways, its not helping my regularity. I use to have IBS-D, but not it’s switched. I am living on laxatives, which I hate. My diet consists mostly of: Oatmeal, almond butter, bananas, kiwi, sm amount pineapple, root veggies, yams, zuch, greens, eggs, whole grain rices, quinoa, almond milks, dark chocolate and a little wine. meat once in a while. I have tried psyllium and magnesium supplements…many western medicine options… acupuncture in the past (although may go back)and am currently looking into making my own lacto-fermented veggies. Is there ANYTHING you would suggest i add to my diet to help keep me regular? Yoga? Acupuncture? I know there is very little research out there to help this. I feel like it has more to do with brain gut connections than food. I’d love to be more regular…and get by body off miralax. If i am able to do that, i may see greater results from this diet. Any suggestions from anyone would be appreciated! Love the blog! Thanks so much! Erin

    1. Hi Erin,
      Have you tried to write food records and calculate out your daily fiber? You may not be getting enough for your body…chia seeds, flaxseed meal, oat bran are good sources of fiber that you can add to your meals. Most woman could benefit from 20-25 grams of fiber per day…some more, some less. Fiber should be increased slowly over a week or two with an increase of water consumption to help the fiber work.
      What about trying clinical hypnosis? Hypnosis is being studied by the same group that created the low FODMAP diet. I believe they are working on a study looking at the benefit of the low FODMAP diet and hypnotherapy done at the same time. Although hypnotherapy can sound scary to some people–it’s not like you are unconscious during the session…but rather in a super focused state. Do you exercise at all? I have had some luck with my patients with IBS-C that walk in the morning–as a way to stimulate intestinal motility. Even trying an walking DVD like Leslie Sansone in your own home in the morning to try to get your body and intestine moving….
      Flagyl can be very therapeutic for SIBO but I believe the drug of choice amongst gastroenterologists that I work with is rifaximin. I personally have had SIBO and rifaximin did the trick. I will say, that many people that I have worked with have had to do two rounds of rifaximin….but that is just my personal experience.

      1. Thanks for the advice! I do workout often, probably 4-5 days a week on average and waitress as a job…so pretty active. Try and hike once a week, high intensity workouts, jog, weights, a good variety. I’ll work on my fiber..and see how much i am really consuming. I’ll ask my Dr. about Riflaximin…i know he had mentioned it but didn’t after the flagyl course. If it is SIBO… he may be guessing on that. Are many IBS cases coming back as SIBO? He says he doesn’t do the Hydrogen breath test…or my insurance/Dr. office doesn’t offer it. I don’t think insurance covers riflaximin, why he went with flagyl, but perhaps its worth a shot. I’ll ask! I’ll look into hypnosis….never really thought about it for regularity… Thanks again for your advice! all ideas are appreciated!

  44. wow!!!!!!!!!! just stumbled on your website and am I ever impressed – my GI Specialist has me booked to see her dietician that specializes in fodmap
    have been doing lots of research in the meantime – and it all makes soooo much sense !!! I like to juice – what about beet juice, I like to sprout what about mung bean sprouts, is applesauce ok – what is the best type of bread
    oh I just can’t wait to be conversing with you and others like me !!!!

    1. Yvonne–Glad you stopped by my blog! Sorry beet juice would not be FODMAP friendly. In fact, 2 beet slices is the new cut off for allowable beets…NOT TOO much, huh?!
      Mung bean sprouts are okay on the low FODMAP diet. Apples are a BIG NO on the low FODMAP diet and yes, that would most definitely mean no applesauce too. As for bread, gluten free or 100% spelt bread are your best bets. Choosing gluten free breads that do not have other FODMAP ingredients such as honey, apple juice, or added inulin (chicory root)–which is sometimes added to package foods to increase fiber content!

  45. so impressed with your information! Read an article about FODMAPS in a RD publication and was then introduced to your information from fellow dietitians who had recently attended one of your presentations. My husband has been having problems for years, as a registered dietitian I thought I had tried and done all the right things and had no answers. He continued to have symptoms that affected his daily life. He had all the expensive testing and the doctor wanted to put him on an expensive medication. NO THANK YOU! Thankfully I came across your information. We have been following the plan for 4 weeks and he feels awesome! Symptom free for over 3 weeks. I am only sad I did not know about the information sooner. I purchased your book on IBS also. FROM ONE RD TO ANOTHER….THANK YOU..THANK YOU…THANK YOU! I will be attending your presentation in Conn.

    1. What a beautiful email to start my Saturday morning too! Thank you and I look forward to meeting you in Bridgeport. I am so happy your husband feels better…Yay!! Now that you will be a FODMAP expert…you too, will get the opportunity to help others like your husband feel so much better!! It is such a rewarding diet therapy to teach and see its life changing results. See you in April!

      1. Where can I get info about your conference in CT in April? I just learned about the low fodmap diet and would love to attend as I have many questions.

  46. Hi Kate. I have been on the FODMAP elimination diet for 4 weeks now. Although my stomach cramps have almost disappeared completely, I still have gas and chronic diaorrhea which are two of the three primary IBS symptoms that I have had for over 10 years. I did have a celebration dinner a couple of weeks ago and drank two glasses of champagne :-( Will this misdemeanour have put me back at all, and should I still continue with the elimination diet, despite the on-going diaorrhea?
    PS Love the website and your posts!

    1. That is a good question Elizabeth. If you have not noted any improvement in your primary symptoms of diarrhea and gas then perhaps you have something else contributing to your symptoms–such as small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, fat malabsorption due to poor pancreatic enzymes –and some individuals have Habba syndrome–which is diarrhea due to a dysfunctional gallbladder. Simple medication can help with Habba Syndrome. http://www.habbasyndrome.com/Advanced_Endoscopy_Diagnostic_Colonoscopy_Summit_NJ.html
      I recommend you follow up with a gastroenterologist. I don’t think the glass of champagne was a problem…or at least I hope not–as we all deserve a celebration drink now and again, right!! :) Take care of yourself…and get the answers you deserve.

  47. First I want to thank you and all who post. It is comforting to have the information and to know that I am not alone in this quest to be relieved of GI pain. I have spent the last year seeing a variety of health care providers and having a variety of test run with a diagnosis of IBS. The most recent GI specialist that I am seeing has me following the low Fodmap diet. I have just begun the challenges. Over the last year the healthy I ate (more raw foods, more servings of fruits and more greens) the sicker I became. My husband and I grow most of our produce using sustainable, organic methods. I hope to be able to identify what I can eat that we are producing and what I have to let go. I appreciate the recipes and the support that this web site and blog provide. I am ordering your book when I finish this post.

  48. Is “Slim Pasta” low fodmap? It is noodles made from the Konjac plant. It contains glucomannan which is a water-soluble polysaccharide. They are VERY low calories, so I would be loathe to give them up after only recently discovering them.

    1. Maureen, the polysaccharides are not FODMAPs–polysaccharides are longer chain carbohydrates…but I am not sure if anything else in the noodles would be a source of FODMAPs. Perhaps remove them during the elimination phase of the diet and then reintroduce and test your tolerance at that point.

  49. This is to verify that I subscribed to your blog and would like to receive updates and comments by email. All of this is new to me. My doctor only told me that have IBS, gave me the FODMAP diets to allow or eliminate and take Imodium. I don’t have a dietician. Thank you and others for this avenue of figuring it all out!

  50. I am following the elimination diet preparing for another Fodmap challenge. Last night I ate two pieces of Whole Foods Gluten Free Prairie Bread. Early this morning I was awakened with abdominal pain. I read the label on the bread and the first ingredient is nonfat milk. I had assumed that it was okay since it was gluten free. Do you think the abdominal pain was caused by the milk in the bread? Maybe I started the Lactose challenge without realizing it. Thanks for your time and your response.

    1. Scotti, It certainly is possible the milk triggered your pain. And you bring up an important point….gluten free DOES NOT mean low FODMAP. This is a diet that careful food ingredient label reading is essential!

  51. I’ve read contradictory reports regarding tomato soup and tomato pasta sauce, due to the higher concentration of tomato. Mine are both home made, with all low fodmap ingredients. Is this OK, or are tomatoes only OK in smaller amounts? Many Thanks

    1. Maureen, I don’t know about tomato soup but canned tomatoes are low FODMAP in 1/2 cup serving. Certainly if you were to ‘cook them down’ the amount of potential FODMAPs would concentrate–water would evaporate out of the tomatoes and therefore FODMAP content could increase. So if you make a tomato sauce out of canned tomatoes and simply simmer to heat it–that should be okay. Make sense?…I am kinda rambling! :)

  52. Hi Kate,

    Is there any difference between cooked and fresh tomatoes and is tomato paste allowable?
    Thank you so much for your site. Chemotherapy seems to have made my FODMAPS intolerance worse so your help is keeping me sane!


  53. Slightly cooked and fresh tomatoes should be similar. If you simmer tomatoes until most of their liquid is lost, you have the potential to concentrate the amount of FODMAPs you would be consuming in a typical serving size. Similar to fruit and dried fruit–dried fruit by an large (beyond 1 Tablespoon of dried cranberries) is not allowed on the low FODMAP because it more concentrated in FODMAPs per serving.
    Tomato paste is a source of excess fructose from what I understand so would not be allowed.

  54. Hello, I was glad to stumble across your site. I was recently at the GI doctor and they recommended this diet to me for my IBS. I was hoping you could recommend a dietician in the Glen Burnie or Parkville area of Maryland. I find dieting so hard and am never able to follow through. This is a a completely new challenge for me. Thank you for your time, your website is wonderful. Thanks’ again, Sarah

  55. Hi Kate. I have been diagnosed with gastroparesis and I am looking for a low-fodmaps meal replacement drink. I came across Garden of Life Raw Meal Replacement Plan (Vanilla) and it appears that it might work, but I am concerned about a few ingredients (and not entirely sure what a few actually are). Is this a product you are familiar with? Thanks!!!

      1. Here is the ingredient list for Garden of Life protein powder. I am really interested in knowing as it lists a lot of sprouts, which I understand are FODMAP safe, however, they are sprouts of things like garbanzo beans, which are not.

      2. Hey Laura, I poked around the site for a few seconds and could not easily check ingredients. Sprouting grains likely lowers FODMAPs but many have not been tested yet so really we don’t know about FODMAP levels. The Monash team will be testing some sprouted bread products soon which should be interesting to learn more about. I would avoid products with sprouted garbanzo beans until we know—at least during elimination phase.

  56. Do you have a RD that you recommend in the NY area? I went to a nutritionist and didn’t find her helpful, not sure I understand the difference, but after reading your blog, think it may help to consult a RD. Thanks!

  57. Hi Kate,
    I just started the low FODMAP and still trying to figure out what is OK during the elimination phase. Are cream cheese and sour cream OK in small amounts? What about Cinnamon Puffins cereal (it is corn based) or Fritos corn chips? Chobani yogurt? Feeling a little overwhelmed and trying to figure this all out.
    Thank you!!!

    1. Amy- I would really encourage you to work with a dietitian to ensure you are following the diet and to help make it easier. I provide detailed grocery lists for my clients to help them. Chobani yogurt would be okay if you limited to 1/4 cup or less but would recommend Green Valley lactose free yogurt- vanilla or plain. Puffins are not allowed. Cream cheese in a 1 Tablespoon portion should be low enough in lactose. I have not seen data on Fritos but would suspect a handful should be fine. Hope that helps….typing on my phone so excuse any typos.

  58. Does your book The Complete Idiot’s Guide to eating well with IBS have the elimination plan in it?

  59. I am just learning about IBS, although I think have suffered with it for a few years. Also was diagnosed with diverticulosis a few months ago. It is hard to separate the symptoms. I have started the FODMAP and following your blog and reading material. No matter what I eat my stomach hurts and bloats. I just had a very sever attack of pain and diarrhea for several days. I’m trying coconut yogurt with my oatmeal for breakfast (thoughts). Very conscience about healthy foods, organic when possible. Having pain all the time is a real challenge. I have scheduled to see the Gastroenterology in 2 weeks, but I fear it will be just an appointment fee without any real solution. I’ve seen him in the past and was told it must acid reflux.

    1. Hey Nikki-So glad you stopped by my blog. First of all, most coconut yogurts seems to have added chicory root or inulin so would not be recommended on the low FODMAP diet–so do be sure to see if your yogurt is one of them. I would recommend you are screened for celiac disease before you remove wheat from your diet. Also, would ask your gastroenterologist to test your for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth –symptoms mimic IBS and ALL IBS patients should be screened for it!

      1. Hi Kate,
        I saw the GI, no celiac or SIBO. He suggested the FODMAP diet and didn’t really have much else to say. (I’m losing faith in the modern day conventional medical system. I spoke with a dietitian at the hospital here and she was not familiar with FODMAP. Was more concerned that I not eliminate any of the food groups. Geez! Let’s fix the problem or at least get it under control then adapt a nutritional diet for long term health.

        I’ve been on the FODMAP for 3 weeks now and for the most part am doing well. Sugars seem to be the biggest culprit to my system. So I can stay away from that with no problem. I do tend to still have a full kind of bloated feeling all the time. Had a traditional turkey sandwich on whole grain bread the other day (was in a meeting and had no control over lunch) didn’t have any major issues. I am tracking my daily food intake in myfitnesspal. I stay right at 1,500 calories per day. I’ve added Organic Clear Fiber (Renew/Live). During the worst 2 month of the IBS I gained about 5 lbs and can’t seem to lose it. It’s all in my stomach. I’m 58 years old and weighed 125 lbs for several years. (now 130) I exercise and do outdoors activities regularly like skiing, cycling, CX skiing. In your opinion is the FODMAP diet contributing to the weight gain or lack of ability to lose? It’s frustrating.

        I do appreciate your time communicating all the good tips and comments. Thank you, Nikki

      2. Nikki, I think the bacterial balance in our guts can impact our inability to gain or lose weight depending on what bacteria are present. What I have found in my practice –the low FODMAP helps my IBS-C patients lose weight. And helps stabilize weight loss in my iBS-D patients—of course not everyone fits this picture…but just a general trend.

  60. Kate,
    I saw your write up in Suburban Women in 2011,found at the Eye Doctor’s office,about FODMAP Diet. I was so delighted to read that there was actually a name for this diet and there were other people like me who could not eat all those foods without problems. It answered a lot of questions of why I couldn’t eat those foods & why I have not all my life. When I found out I had Lactose Intolerance in the 80’s, I started doing research to understand what that meant. Now it makes a lot of sense, if I have trouble with Lactose,that I would also have trouble with other sugars. I had looked at my Nutrition Almanic for other components in all the foods that were similar,but it did not state the different types of sugars. I had taken prescription pancreatic enyzmes to no avail. I don’t see how you or my Dietician can state Fat Malabsorption is linked to pancreatic enzyme insufficiency,when the blood panel is normal for those enyzmes? I think since the total Bilirubin is high that the problem is due more to a liver problem.
    Thanks for putting together a wonderful site for people to go to for information on FODMAP diet. I really appreciate it!!!

    1. Fat malabsorption can occur in people with digestive health disorders for a NUMBER of different reasons. What I see very commonly in my practice, is fat malabsorption likely due to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Our body releases bile into our digestive tract to help with fat digestion. If an individual has SIBO, the bacteria get to the bile and render it inactive…this impacts fat digestion significantly. Pancreatic enzyme deficiency can be another potential cause to fat digestive issues as would gallbladder dysfunction too.

  61. Kate,
    Thanks for your reply. My mother had her gallbladder removed. Since I seem to have the same food issues as she did, I think it is more likely the fat malabsorption is due to a dysfunctional gall bladder as you suggest.

    1. Soy protein isolates should be low FODMAP…its the carb/fiber portion of soy that contains the GOS, FODMAP group. Of course, there could be other ingredients in the protein powder that may contain FODMAPs.

  62. I was wondering if you know what FODMAP category cocoa & carob fall into? I can tolerate all of the categories except GOS/fructans. Do you know if cocoa & carob are high sources of GOS/fructans? Thanks so much for all you do!!!

    1. I have NOT seen the black and white numbers but from what I gather the cocoa is an even mix of fructans and GOS. The carob was OFF the charts high in FODMAPs and I would assume but may be wrong that it also contains fructans and GOS since a 1 oz serving had 3.3 grams fiber and fructans and GOS are fibers.

  63. I am very interested in Laura’s Vegan Menu Handout, however I’m not able to access the link from my computer in order to receive it. Would there be any way you could e-mail me the information? It would be so much appreciated!

  64. I have been low FODMAP for about a week….long story short….I am pretty sure ALL fruits make me miserable…lots and lots and lots and lots of belching….abdominal distension. Can this happen? ALL FRUITS?

  65. Hi Kate,

    I’m a new RD who recently discovered the FODMAPs diet for IBS. I can’t believe we didn’t cover it in my undergrad classes! I have a personal and family history of IBS and other bowel disorders and really want to learn more about helping people use this FODMAPs information to control symptoms. How did you become a “FODMAPs dietitian?” Where did you learn all of your information? Did you have to get a special certification? Any information you have to help would be great! Thank you!

    1. Hey Lisa, I discovered the research on FODMAPs when I was writing my Complete Idiot’s Guide to Eating Well with IBS in 2009. The diet made so much sense to me having worked with patients with IBS and with my own history of having an intestinal resection and having SIBO. I started corresponding with the Monash University researchers and flew to Australia to attend one of their dietitian education seminars. The researchers have been extremely helpful to me in keeping me abreast of the new research and now I am involved with an international food study with them. I did not receive a special certification but I have read the research thoroughly and stay on top of it all as much as humanly possible. I did create a self study course with Wolf Rinke that you may find helpful–it was developed specifically for the dietitian and I feel offers a great overview of the diet and its implementation. Here is the link if you are interested: http://www.wolfrinke.com/CEFILES/C226CPEcourse.htm
      I have spent hours on this blog to try to get accurate information to individuals who suffer with IBS so that they can hopefully manage their symptoms and get some well needed relief from an often debilitating disorder. It’s become my life work and mission in many ways. A true labor of love for me… Rewording and fulfilling. Best of luck with you and I encourage you to learn all you can…as there are many IBS sufferers that need you!

  66. HI Kate,
    Since garbanzo beans are OK to eat if it is less than 1/4, does that mean I can have bread/cake mixes that have garbanzo beans in it (like Bob’s)?

    1. Not sure about that Katherine….not sure how garbanzo bean flour would compare to the beans themselves…. It seems that a small amount of the bean flour should be okay…but sometimes FODMAP content of foods in different forms defies logic. I would avoid the bean flours at this time –perhaps try after the elimination phase of the diet.

  67. I have asked questions several times but never get an answer.

    two things:
    I found a recipe on here for homemade granola bars and can’t find it again. Could you direct me to where it is?

    Can I have raisins on the Fodmap diet?

  68. I have been sick for over a year. The docs keep saying I need to eat a better balance of fiber and drink more water. Water is all I drink! I’m trying this but I need fast and easy breakfast ideas. My hubs is active duty and I am a working mom who works out. I need to start my day out right or righter! :). Thanks in advance.

    1. Adding more fiber is not the solution for everybody! How about making some crustless quiches: http://blog.katescarlata.com/2012/11/11/mini-crustless-quiches/ freezing them and reheat in the morning for a quick breakfast, or try some cheerios with lactose free milk, a banana and a sprinkle of walnuts or pumpkin seeds? Foods by George has a nice low FODMAP English muffin or try French Meadows spelt bread and top with peanut butter and sliced bananas.

  69. Hi Kate, I have just discovered your wonderful site – thank you, thank you, thank you.
    My 19yo daughter has struggled with multiple food intolerances post a nasty flu/gastroenteritis whilst overseas several years ago. Long story short her stomach healed up but she was left with and finally diagnosed with) IBS.
    Her normal diet is vegan, and consists of legumes, grains, seeds, nuts, fruit and veg; despite the very high fibre intake constipation was predominant.
    She had a bout of gastro 2 months ago and has had constant diarrhoea and pain since. She’s been tested for other likely causes (all clear), so an altered IBS pattern seems the most likely explanation.
    After much reading I’m thinking her normal diet formerly well tolerated) could well be making her worse at the moment.
    She is a long term vegan, and it’s very difficult to find “safe” foods at the moment whilst she trials an elimination diet in the hope of settling things down. I’m basing it around low FODMAPs, and other information I’ve seen regarding having soluble fibre only during any elimination phase. There’s a lot of inet info out there (often overwhelming), but I can find nothing else available where we live.
    I think FODMAPs might be THE answer to all of her symptoms! I have ordered some resources, and am waiting for breath testing kits to become available to confirm my suspicions.
    In desperation, we think it’s best to keep her on a self devised restricted “elimination diet” for a few days/week until things hopefully settle down. I’d appreciate any advice you could give regarding:
    (1) using a FODMAP versus a soluble fibre only approach?
    (2) ideas for adequate vegan protein sources (she doesn’t like soy, seitan or tempeh)?

    If you got to the end of this….Thanks :) Julie

    1. Sometimes simple alteration in types of fiber can be the easiest solution. But soluble fiber comes in many shapes and forms. And if its rapidly fermentable such as inulin it may be a big trigger for her symptoms.
      It’s difficult to make an assessment on what approach might be the answer for your daughter in this blog setting–I spend quite some time with my clients learning and connecting dots before I can create what I hope to be a good nutrition plan based on their history. If you decide to give the low FODMAP diet a whirl, she may find canned lentils (without onion and garlic) 1/2 cup per serve or 1/4 cup canned chickpeas as tolerated low FODMAP vegan protein sources. Nut butters can be well tolerated–peanut butter should be lowest in FODMAPs. Quinoa and buckwheat may provide additional sources of protein as well.

  70. I subscribed to receive e-mail updates but as of yet have never received one. I tried to subscribe again but it says that I already have. Not sure what the problem is.

  71. Kate,
    Thanks for the recommendation of a dietician. She is 4 hours away so we have just emailed at this point. She talked in her email to me about her being experienced in MRT testing and the LEAP protocol. What do you know about that? It sounds very expensive.

    At this point I am just trying to follow the fodmap diet the best I can figure it out. I have done it strictly for 3 1/2 weeks and have had only 2 days without stomach problems. Is that unusual?

    I have recently heard of a person in the SLC area that is familiar with fodmaps and will see about getting in to see her.

    In your blog I often hear mention of the elimination stage and the challenge stage. I am not sure what they really mean. I was hoping your book would help(I have sent for it but it hasn’t come yet) but in a prior question you said it doesn’t talk much about that.

    Sorry for the long comment. Appreciate any further help you can give me.

    1. Thanks for the feedback Leslie. I am not opposed to LEAP which tests for delayed food intolerances, but I like to try low FODMAP first as it is evidenced based researched, requires no blood testing, and is relatively easy with some help with a FODMAPs knowledgable RD. The elimination phase of the low FODMAP diet is the period of 2-6 weeks in which you eliminate all the high FODMAP foods and eat strictly a low FODMAP diet. The re-challenge phase is when you methodically add back FODMAPs –by FODMAP group–lactose, fructose, fructans etc… this is done in a structured manner.
      If you have been following the low FODMAP diet carefully and have had only 2 days out of 3 1/2 weeks without symptoms–then 1) you may not be following the diet correctly 2) you may have small intestinal bacterial overgrowth 3) you may have constipation that needs to be corrected with some help (miralax or other appropriate remedy-chia seeds), 4)you may be one of the 25 % of IBSers that is not helped by a low FODMAP diet 5) or perhaps something else You may also want to check out my colleague’s book, IBS free at Last by Patsy Catsos, check our her site at ibsfree.net– her book walks you through the elimination phase of the low FODMAP diet.
      Hope that helps!

  72. I’ve noted a lot of differences in foods listed on various low FODMAP charts. In particular, I was wondering about coconut in all its various forms–oil, flour, milk, shredded natural, etc. I recently tried a low FODMAP diet and experienced quite a bit of improvement. Based on other lists I have, I eliminated coconut. But a member of a SIBO discussion group I belong to mentioned that you include it in your list. What is your opinion about each form of coconut? Is this a food that you would limit to a certain amount per day or doesn’t it matter? Your recipes look delicious. Thanks much.

    1. Hi Jackie, I follow Monash University info and they do allow coconut milk (1/2 cup) and shredded coconut (1/4 cup) on the low FODMAP diet. As for coconut flour–I have not seen data yet on that so I don’t allow it. Coconut oil would not be a source of FODMAPs (no carbs). Hope that helps.

  73. Hi Kate, i was just wondering if there is any difference between blue agave inulin and chicory root inulin in their ability to cause symptoms? Thanks Jena

    1. AWESOME question Jena. And I am not sure I can definitively answer it but from what I have read….it appears the number of sugars that are contained in a FODMAP carbohydrate –known in research as the degree of polymerization (DP)….will impact the quickness in which it will ferment–the less the DP (smaller chain carbs) the quicker the “FODMAP” source will be fermented and cause gas. One paper states that the DP of Agave fructan ranged from 1-21 while chicory root inulin DP is 12-25….so agave inulin may have a quicker impact on symptoms. The fructans in onions have a smaller DP than garlic and this is why they likely are the most problematic veggie for many with IBS. But, we need studies to confirm these thoughts.

  74. Love the site. GI told me to go on fodmap diet with no info. Have been to a RD & was told 80% of people who have IBS are depressed, I need to go to a psychiatrist,need colonics, & mine symptoms are actually the result of a much more serious illness & NEVER ONCE ASKED ME WHAT MY MEDICAL HISTORY WAS! Think I need a better quallified rd. Any rds in chicago area who know about fodmaps? I did look to the list on IBSFree with no luck. Also I how do I find out about how much or little to eat of a particular food? The best info I found has been your website & I appreciate it I just feel I need more direction Thanks-Sari

    1. Sari, I will be doing a training for dietitians outside of Chicago at the end of September–so check back…I bet I will have by the end of the month–so names for you. Sorry you had a bad experience in the past! Hang in!

  75. Hi Kate, I’ll add in to say thanks for creating this site. I haven’t been diagnosed with IBS as such, but I do have many of the symptoms. I have ME/CFS, Fibromyalgia and low blood pressure. I’m hoping that by doing the FODMAPs diet I will be able to identify some foods that could be causing the digestive problems I have and thus alleviate some of my other problems including some of the fatigue and pain.

    I live remotely and have had no luck in finding a dietician in the district so will be regulating this myself. This site will be a wonderful resource to help me over the next few months. Cheers

  76. Hi kate. I was referred to your site by a friend and i’m just about to start the Fodmap diet.
    I have a question regarding certain foods, for example carrots, that are on the safe list but I know that they cause me terrible bloating when eaten raw. I’m not sure if cooked has the same effect. So would I add these foods to my non-safe list as I begin the diet?

    Also as a vegetarian I do usually eat beans, lentils and chick peas. As I start the diet, would it be OK to eat these foods but in moderation – say one a week and about 1/2 cup serving?

    Thanks and glad to have found your site.

    1. Terri, typically if my clients feel a certain food is problematic for them I would pull it off the table during the low FODMAP elimination phase …and test their tolerance at a later time. Certainly, you don’t want to make the low FODMAP diet too restrictive so work with a dietitian to ensure you are doing the diet properly and in a well-balanced-nutritious manner.
      Canned chickpeas -1/4 cup per serving and canned lentils 1/2 cup serving are considered okay by me during the elimination phase.
      Only one legume choice at a sitting. Canned legumes are lower in FODMAPs then when you soak and cook your own–likely as the legumes have a long time sitting in the liquid to allow the GOS in them to leach into the water/liquid that you drain off when you open the legumes. Whole Foods has a FODMAP friendly canned lentil product (Westbrae canned lentils).
      I have a few more vegetarian low FODMAP ideas here: http://blog.katescarlata.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/Final-Vegan-Menu-Planning-July-2013.pdf

  77. Thank you so much for your website and advice!

    Can you please tell me if you know about Konjac?
    SlenderSlim pasta make a noodle with konjac flour and firming agent (526). I can’t find a consistent response on the internet about whether konjac is “safe” on a low FODMAP diet.
    Thank you!

  78. I love the recipe for the carmalized bananas!!! So good!! I made this recipe and put it on top of 1 cup of Chobani Plain Non-fat Greek Yogurt. My stomach had severe bloating shortly afterwards. I did not have any gas or diarrhea, just the bloating. My stomach was pretty uncomfortable & I had trouble even walking around. Yesterday I had 1c of the same yog only mixed with 1/2 c fresh pineapple & my stomach did the same thing. I’ve been diagnosed with IBS-D & GERD. Two years ago I was tested for lactose intol & it came back negative. I know I have to eat pretty small meals at a time or I have massive bloating. Do you think this was just too much food at one time for my stomach? Do you think I should only be consuming 1/2 c yogurt at one time? Sometimes I’m just really hungry & 1/2 c doesn’t feel like enough. Do you think I should try lactose free yogurt? Do you think I should get tested again for lactose intolerance? I do drink skim milk as well, but very small amounts of it.

    1. Sorry I missed this post–YES…definitely try the lactose free yogurt–and see how you feel. With some of the FODMAP groups-fructose, sorbitol and mannitol–even if you body absorbs these sugars–they still MAY contribute to GI symptoms–so even if you tested negative for lactose malabsorption –perhaps (and I am guessing about this) that you may still have a level of intolerance to the sugar. This may be due to the osmotic effects of these small sugars that draw water into the intestine and can make us feel uncomfortably bloated.

  79. Hi Kate! I’m new to the low-fodmap diet and just found your blog online. All of the useful information you provide is much appreciated. I’ve been reading up as much as I can, but I was wondering: what is the consensus on palm fruit oil? Is it fodmap-friendly? Thanks!

  80. I’m really moving toward a vegetarian diet. I would like to try an alternative to cows milk.
    I haven’t found a soy milk that doesn’t contain whole soybeans. Do you know of any brands? I don’t think I want to go to rice milk due to the low protein content in it. Would almond milk be ok? (I know almonds can trigger IBS if consumed in access. Do you think 3 cups of almond milk in a day would pose a problem? What do you think is my best option?

      1. I have found 8th continent (original is the only low FODMAP version from what I can tell) at Stop and Shop and Super Stop and Shop in the Northeast.

  81. Thank you so much for all of this information. My 2 yr old son has FM. Do you perhaps know anyone in your field from the NYC area that we could go see about his diet?

  82. I’m on a very high dose of probiotics (450b units/day) to rebuild my gut flora.
    I also have sibo. Do you see any inconsistency in this treatment?

    1. Steve-I haven’t seen a solid study to suggest using probiotics is beneficial with SIBO. It might be a good idea–but it could cause more problems. If anyone finds a good study please share! I think there are many theories that more is good–but from clinical observation with my clients–more bacteria generally causes more problems.

  83. Hi Kate,
    I’m from South Africa and unfortunately Drs and dieticians here have never heard of FODMAPS, let alone know what the low FODMAP diet is. I found out about it online and I have had to try and figure this out for myself. It is terribly frustrating having no one to help me and I seem to be stuck with my diet. I am in week 10 of the elimination phase and have a food diary. I have days where I will be okay but then bloat up terribly the next and I am eating the same few foods over and over, just mixed up a little. I would love to reintroduce new foods, but how can I when I’m reacting to so many of the low FODMAP ones? I am lactose intolerant and react to rice, coconut and soy milk. Could my IBS really be this bad where I react to so much food? We do not have a big variety of gluten-free or diary-free products here at all so things are extremely limited for me and only a few supermarkets here or there will stock them. The gluten-free products will always have something added which isn’t low FODMAP so I can’t buy any of those products.
    I have no one to guide me through this and it is affecting me every day. I have gone through this for a year now and it is agonisingly difficult. I do not know what to do and can’t imagine suffering with this for the next fourty-odd years.

    1. Melany,
      Do you feel the low FODMAP diet is helping you at all? Typically most people will note improvements with in 2 weeks. The diet is not designed for long term use–just a short elimination phase ideally 2-6 weeks followed by the re-introduction/challenge phase. Not sure why you might be reacting to the other non-dairy milks–may be additives in those products. Soy milk varies in FODMAP content–those made with whole soybeans are likely high fodmap while those made with soy protein isolates are likely low FODMAP. So always read ingredient labels. Would encourage you to work with your doctor or a dietitian to help you– maybe you can find a dietitian that will be willing to learn more about the low FODMAp diet and other dietary interventions to help you with your symptoms.

      1. Hello Kate,
        In December I was tested for SIBO and it came back positive (I am also Lactose Intolerant). This explains why I have been struggling so much with my diet. What steps should I be taking now and what foods do I need to cut out and what could I eat with SIBO?
        Do I need to follow the low FODMAP diet when it comes to vegetables, or can I add more, like broccoli, cauliflower etc? I’m guessing I should eliminate fruits, sugar, carbs and starchy veg?
        Unfortunately my dietician has never dealt with someone with SIBO before and has just told me to follow a low carb, high fat, dairy free diet but she has not given me a list of foods nor is she helping me to find out which foods I do not react to.
        I will be starting my course of Flagyl (the only antibiotic available in South Africa for SIBO)next week.
        I would appreciate your advvice.

      2. Melany, It’s hard to give specific recommendations in a blog format. I typically personalize my approach with each client. Low FODMAP diet would be a good starting point for a person with SIBO. Spacing meals at least 3 hours apart is another good idea to allow the small intestine to potentially have a cleansing wave inbtw meals.

  84. Kate,
    Thank you for this blog site! In just a few minutes I have learned a great deal and got a start on solving some of my health/food issues. For the past 9/10 yrs. I have had digestive/bowel problems, never really addressed by health care professionals. Just recently after several clinic appointments my NP very casually mentioned FODMAP, handed me a list of (yes & no) foods and said to call her in 8 wks. I have been on a protein pump inhibitor, which did help with my occasional heart burn, now after over a year I’m tapering off, I was switched from Miralax (been on this for years) to Citracil (oh so did not work), but as with one of your other readers, I am wishing I could get off Miralax. I just can’t figure out what is wrong with me! I am a retired nurse, the last years of my career I worked with diabetics as a CDE. A very rewarding career. I thought I had a pretty good handle on food/diet issues. I intend to follow your advise and contact an RD who is up on FODMAP – I found one in Raleigh, NC! I am very grateful I found this blog site/websites and say bless you for all the time and energy you put into helping people like me. I believe there are many people out there who suffer (sometimes quietly) with diet/food/digestive troubles. Thank you again!

  85. Hi,

    I have been put on the FODMAP diet and are not able to find any information if prunes and sultanas are fine on this diet as i eat prunes for more fibre and sultanas with almonds for a snack.

  86. I am SO happy to have found this blog. It was suggested to me by my daughter’s RD. My daughter is 7 yrs old and suffers from gluten, soy, dairy, and apple allergies, IBS, esophagitice, and acid reflux. Needless to say it was getting very hard to feed her and she was getting quite bored with the same old rolled up deli meats in a baggie for her school lunch. I am really looking forward to learning all you have to teach!

  87. Hi Kate,

    Love that name BTW. My grandmother and daughter are named Kate (Short for Kathryn). Anyway, I have had many bowel surgeries. I don’t have a Colon, had a Bowel Obstruction in 1999 that should have killed me, and I currently live with a J-Pouch. Having a pouch is better than Ulcerative Colits. I get constant pain and pressure with intense Gas and I started following the Low FODMAP Diet. Some things I can’t even eat regardless like Lettuce and any cheese except Parm. In additon, I am trying to stick to a Gluten Free Diet which has helped me and feeling better since last Sat. No Onins, Garlic, Pasta, Tomato Sauce. This change is not easy for me, esp since I am Italian. I avoid Milk. Soy Milk gives me Kidney Stones. Rice Milk started to aggravate my gut so now I switched to Almond Milk.

    An advice would be greatly appreciated.

    Thank you.


    1. We don’t know yet about almond milk as far as FODMAP content but likely some brands are high in FODMAPs as almonds are on the high side. How about lactose free cow’s milk such as lactaid? Rice milk may aggravate your gut as some brands contain chicory root which is a FODMAP source–so look back at the brand to be sure it wasn’t an additive added to your rice milk rather than the milk itself that caused you problems. Good luck to you…I too have had extensive intestinal surgery…no fun..but glad to learn about a diet that has helped me quite a bit…and hopefully you too!

  88. Hi Kate,

    Haven’t had Lactaid milk in years. I avoid dairy like milk and cheese because of my gut. It causes me severe cramps and gas which I cannot pass and then I am in real trouble.

    Rice milk started to give me a problem which is why I switched to Almond Milk about 3 weeks ago. I am having a Hydrogen Breath Test to see if I have Bacterial Overgrowth in about two weeks.

    The doctor also wants to prescribe a Celiac Blood Test. The problem with that is if I avoid wheat, like Pasta which gives me bad cramps, then the Celiac Blood Test may result in a False Negative. Which means I have to go back eating pasta at lease a week to give me the honest results.


  89. Kate,
    What about Minute Rice & Cream of Rice, do they contain a FODMAP? If I eat more than a 1/2 c. I have to run to the bathroom.

    1. Hi Terri,

      I eat Minute Rice and Cream of Rice and they do not give me a problem. I avoid Wild Rice and other Rice that are high in Fiber.

      1. You said that Rice is not a source of FODMAP. Then why the urgency to run to the bathroom after eating it?

      2. Terri- perhaps it is not a FODMAP issue/sensitivity you are having. Not everyone is sensitive to FODMAPs and there are other reasons that a person may have IBS symptoms–may not be related to food at all. Brown rice ONLY has a trace of fructans–so not a major source of FODMAPs. Perhaps digestive enzyme deficiency or other cause–would review with your gastroenterologist.

      3. Digestive enzymes nor pancreatic enzymes made a difference. Just not eating the foods that give me a problem or severe reduction of portion.

  90. Kate,
    As an IBS sufferer for 20 years I am excited to give the FODMAPs diet a try. I have the extra challenge of having Type 2 Diabetes (genetic form). In the past I have tried to stay away from artificial sweeteners(splenda, nutrasweet etc…)thinking that they were not good for clean eating. I use stevia, but will no longer be able to use xylitol or agave nectar. Can you give me your take on artificial sweeteners? I am also curious about your opinion of diabetics using maple syrup in cooking? Thanks for sharing your knowledge and recipes!

    1. Denise, I am not a fan of artificial sugars. Added sugar is not a good idea for all of us–diabetes or not. But I do allow my clients with diabetes to have some pure maple syrup. I use the ‘carb counting’ method in my practice and my diabetic clients are able to fit in occasional treats as long as they keep to their carb limit per meal. I would encourage you seek guidance from a dietitian–as I can’t provide personal diet info in a blog format.

      1. Thank you for your input! I find if very interesting to get different health care professional opinions, but will of course talk it over with my primary care team.

  91. Kate,

    I only eat Cream of Rice because when its cold outside, I like something warm to eat. I also do have and egg with it and gluten free toast. Cream of Wheat and Oatmeal give causes me cramps with my sesitive gut.

  92. Rocco & Kate,
    I have the same problems with Cream Of Rice & Minute Rice. If I eat more than 1/2 c with Lactose Free Milk, & 2 egg whites, I run to the bathroom after a couple of bites. And I would like to know why. I looked up in my Nutrion Almanac & found that Rice has only .1 gram of Fiber. I know Brown Rice has Fructons in it. But what about White Rice?

  93. Terri,

    Jus to Clarify, The urgency to run to the bathroom is not when I eat Cream of RICE, but with Oatmeal and Cream of Wheat.

    I need to be on a Low Residue Diet and cannot tolerate anything high in Fiber. That is why I am trying to eat a Gluten Free Diet.

    I cannot even tolerate Lactaid so I drink Almond Milk, Almond is higher in Protein than Rice Milk though I like Rice Milk too.

    So my diet is a combonation of Gluten Free when I can and FODMAP on only the foods I can tolerate.

  94. I wonder why you are unable to handle Lactaid. I wonder if it is just the milk protein. Perhaps I should give the Almond or Rice Milk a try instead of the Lactose Free Milk.

  95. Terri,

    Perhaps you are lactose intolerant. You can contact a GI doctor, though not all of them do this test, and ask for a lactose intolerant test.

    Also, do you take Probioctics>

    1. I am Lactose & Fructose Intolerant,and have discovered it since the 1980s. It has been very difficult eating when many doctors are not aware of Lactose & Fructose intolerance. Many people also think it’s just “nerves” or all in your head,my inlaws laugh & make fun of me. I had one doctor say to me,”Go to the hospital & have all those tests. You’ll find out there is nothing wrong with you!” I just cried. She went on to work on the board of the hospital, & still is there. Drinking a glass of milk & having the symptoms is enough of a test that the enzymes are not there, a body malfunction, not a mental problem.
      When I had to take my husband to the eye doctor, the Suburban Women magazine was in the office to read,in 2011. Kate was interviewed in that issue and it was a Godsend of info that I had been looking for as to why I couldn’t eat a lot of foods-FODMAPS

  96. Isn’t that sad that your in-laws only laughed at you. My soon to be ex-laws made fun of me too for many reasons that was fueled just to have fun at my expense.

    Glad to hear you know about your intolerance and that Kate was able to help you

  97. Rocco,
    Thanks for sharing that Lactaid Milk didn’t work for you. I haven’t been able to get to the store to try the Almond milk or Rice Milk with Cream of Rice,but I did try it with distilled water this morning, and did not have any ill effects.

    1. Janet–the cut off for almonds is 10 almonds….that would be translate to a very small amount of almond flour. So, if it’s part of a recipe in small amounts–it’s probably okay–but if the recipe is mostly almond flour–it likely would have too much FODMAPs.

  98. Kate-thanks for all the information you have provided. Your approach to FODMAP is great and i wish you the best for the NEw Year.

  99. Hi Kate
    Thanks for publishing this info. I have suffered from IBS & even had a total colectomy in 206. The low FODMAP diet is helping, but I am gaining weight! I heard about some recent research stating that the flora in one’s gut can cause weight gain. I want to ask about the best probiotic for me. I also wonder if I have some autoimmune issues, since I have some biologic “achy” periods, that seem to begin with a scratchy throat. Any advise would be greatly appreciated! Also I would like to find a knowledgeable nutritionist in my area, Asheville, NC. Thanks!

    1. Hi there, It’s does appear that certain bacteria in the gut may be able to extract greater amounts of calories from our foods and this may contribute to weight gain. We don’t know YET fully how to modify the gut flora to help manage weight–though I have found that many my clients troubled with IBS-C that have tried the low FODMAP diet – have also been able to lose stubborn weight that they had been saddled with for years. If you have noted weight gain while on the low FODMAP diet –it may be that you are relying too much on processed foods and your goal should be to stick to foods as close to Mother Nature as possible–leafy low FODMAP greens, acceptable fruits, lean meats etc… You might have some other food intolerances that are contributing to your scratchy throat–oral allergy syndrome –or perhaps another intolerance– I think it would be a great idea to connect with a registered dietitian. My colleague Patsy Catsos has some Asheville based RDs on her registry. Link here: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/pub?key=0Akn0_HiRxVbndE5sTXlCaExybFlwUDU0X0JXYUFRUGc&single=true&gid=1&output=html

  100. I heard that coconut is high in Fodmaps. What is the serving size for coconut in a low fodmap diet, or is it best to stay away from coconut? Also, then I would imagine only a small amount of coconut flour should be used in recipes as well. What about Tahini? It seems I have problems when I eat this as well. What is the serving size for Tahini on low fodmap? Many cream cheese and cottage cheese products contain carob bean or carob gum. Should this be avoided due to carob is high in fodmaps?

    1. Tahini is high in fructans and GOS so is not allowed on the low FODMAP diet. You pose an interesting question about carob products–I would imagine if the ingredient says carob bean –I might avoid–but I believe the gum might be okay– as gums are typically longer chain carbs–not considered short chain carbohydrates–> FODMAPs. Generally gums are added as a last ingredient so should not be present in large quantities…but eating too many gums can contribute to gas as they are often fermentable–and create gas rather quickly. So….do try to stick with real natural foods rather than consume large amounts of “food products” with these additives–as they likely will have an additive effect in your intestine!

  101. I found the serving size for coconut in a previous post–1/4c. I was wondering if dates are ok? I seem to be intol to fructan/galactan group only. If they are ok, what would a serving be? What is an acceptable serving of almond butter, peanut butter, and sunflower butter?

    1. Would be sure you have the latest checklist: http://blog.katescarlata.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/FODMAP-checklist-Dec-2013.pdf
      Updated last month. Dates are a source of fructans. Of the nut butters, peanut butter has the least amount of FODMAPs. I would limit to 2 tablespoons peanut butter, 1 tablespoon almond butter and 2 tsp. sunflower butter to minimize fodmap content. Fat can contribute to GI symptoms as well so I encourage healthy fat at each meal–especially healthy nut butters BUT keep the portion reasonable–as noted above.

  102. Thanks for the updated FODMAP checklist! You have always been so helpful and I am deeply appreciative of your guidance. I was wondering about Blue Diamond Almond Nut-Thins? The first ingredient is rice flour, but the second is almonds. Do you think a standard serving of 17 crackers would be ok? Is it better to reduce the serving size or not eat them at all?

  103. Hi Kate! Thank you so much for all that you do – I work with a registered dietition and my GI to combat the symptoms I’m having related to severe ulcerative colitis. So far, a low fodmap diet has been the only thing that has worked. I use your site daily to check certain items (I’m still learning). One thing I’m trying to do is work smoothies back into my diet (I love them!). In an effert to keep things interesting, I’d like to try adding Cacao but I haven’t been able to find any data on it. Is Cacao low fodmap? I’d appreciate your advice!

    1. I believe cacao refers to the seeds that are used to make cocoa. Not sure these seeds have been analyzed in that form. BUT cocoa powder has been tested and 3 teaspoons is allowed. It’s the fiber part of cocoa that contains the FODMAPs. Is the cacao in a product that contains high amounts of fiber? That would be a potential red flag. I am not a cacao expert –I would likely advise my client to hold off and try it as part of the challenge phase of the diet–or perhaps sub in cocoa in their smoothie.

    1. Hi Tracie–I am familiar with Garcina Cambogia…It’s received much hype! Not sure how it would fit with the low FODMAP diet and typically I just don’t favor these types of so called ‘miracle pills’. At a minimum, we need more research!

  104. Hi Kate, your site is a life-saver – thank you so much for sharing your knowledge with us! I’m just embarking on the FODMAP diet after battling for some 20 odd years with IBS and no apparent success with various diets/meds.
    Been on this regimen for a week now and feel remarkably better! I would love your opinion on Teff – it seems to be nutritionally sound, but I’m not certain?
    Thank you in advance!!

    1. Victoria, teff should be okay….I have been told by the Monash researcher that most GF grains they have tested have less FODMAPs than wheat including teff. And I am so glad that you found my site and that you have found it useful! Makes my day!

  105. Kate –
    I have been suffering from fructose malabsorption for over 6 years now. I finally reached out to a dietician and found out about FODMAPs and I am excited to start this journey and start feeling better. The more information I read, the more I want to go back to school and learn about food and potentially becoming a dietician to help others. Is there any advice you have for me (do’s and don’ts) as I make this a profession

    1. Ashley, I absolutely love what I do–can’t recommend it more highly. I would recommend you sit in with a dietitian for a day to get an overall sense of the job. There is a lot of science classes –pretty intense and an internship…but I loved it all. I find in the field of nutrition–the best jobs for me are the ones I have self created–so if you go into the field –blaze your own trail!

  106. I have been struggling with fructose malabsorption for the last 6 years and have only recently found out about FODMAPs. I went to a dietician who recommended your blog and I am excited to start the journey into feeling better. The more material I read, the more the topic interests me. At this point, I would like nothing more than to help others so they do not struggle like I was. Do you have any recommendations (do’s and don’ts) for making this a career choice?

  107. Hi Kate,

    This site is a heaven sent! My wife was recently diagnosed with IBS and we are working on finding her triggers and what she can/cannot eat. I love to cook and do majority of the cooking in the house and I have a question about brining my meat. My standard brine usually contains garlic cloves and I am curious if the this will trigger my wife’s symptons. Do you know if this will?
    Thank you again for this site! It has been extremely helpful and full of great information.

    1. Dane, Thanks for stopping by my blog! Garlic contains WATER soluble fructans (a FODMAP source) so if you use garlic in a water-based mixture such as a brine–then the FODMAPs can leach out and potentially be troublesome. Garlic used to infuse flavor in oil will not contain the fructans as long as you remove the garlic prior to consuming the oil. (Fructans can’t leach into oil base) So I think the brine would be a no-go on the elimination trial of the diet. Not everyone is sensitive to garlic (I am not) so perhaps the brine can come back into the mix after the initial phase of the low FODMAP diet.

      1. Kate, Thank you for the quick response! Great information and I will not use garlic in the brine until we are 100% positive she can handle garlic.

        Thank you again for the quick response!

  108. I see that “cabbage” is often listed as something to avoid on a low FODMAPS diet, but you have it as a “friendly” vegetable. I have also seen sauerkraut on avoid lists as well. My husband and I make our own sauerkraut and kimchi. So, I would be interested in your thoughts about cabbage, sauerkraut and Napa cabbage that I have been using in our kimchi.

    Thanks so much,


    1. Brinn, the common cabbage (with smooth leaves) is low FODMAP per the Monash app with a 1 cup limit while the Savoy has a bit more FODMAPs so is capped off at 1/2 cup. Not sure about napa–but thinking it will be similar to Savoy. So if sauerkraut was made with suitable low FODMAP ingredients with common cabbage, I would allow it on the diet.

  109. Dear Kate,
    I can’t tell you how terrific it was to find your blog and how much I appreciate you doing this wonderful thing for people like me. I was diagnosed with SIBO via the breath test and was handed the FODMAP diet. I’m so glad that I came across your blog because I apparently have an old listing of what’s high and what’s low. My version said that all nuts but pistachios were OK, so I had been loading up on cashews ‘cause I love them, or that garlic and onion powder were OK, just not the real thing. Is it safe to assume that if I download the app from Monash, that it would be the ultimate source going forward? The best part is that you’ve given me back my one piece of dark chocolate each evening! Your write up of the SIBO conference was remarkable. I learned so much just from that section alone. I have now made your blog my home page to catch everything.

    I’m also very glad to hear that you’re updating your website because, after spending about 3 hours reading a ton of comments and responses to get educated, I found it hard to find a specific one to go back to such as the one that talks about soy lethicin being OK even though soy is not, or where you write that some patients with acid reflux find relief from the diet. (I also have Laryngopharyngeal Reflux and am trying to avoid fundoplication surgery). It would be great to have a way to search for specific text to go back to later and re-read.

    I can’t thank you enough, really. You’re a saint.

    1. Thanks Linda for your kind words…really means a lot. The Monash app is awesome and a sound resource for the updates on food analysis–I recommend it for highly. Not all the nuance are on the app–like additive info or label reading hints…but perhaps they will be at some point. I hope searching the blog will be easier with my new layout. :)

  110. What a great site, have been given this diet to follow and I had no idea where to start. I now know where I can go to check specifics. Thank you!

  111. Kate,
    I mentioned that in November,that eating Rice was causing me problems. Since 12/12/13 I have stopped eating it. I felt better within days, and I could touch my stomach with no pain. I always thought Rice was suppose to be safe to eat,but I guess not for me.

    1. Terri, Some individuals are sensitive to rice due to the starch content. This is not a FODMAP issue as FODMAPs are small chain carbohydrates and starch is composed of long chain carbohydrates. Resistant starch is rapidly fermentable. It is my understanding that some rice is higher in resistant starch than others. Trying jasmine or sticky short chain rice is easier to digest presumably so if you decide to give rice a try these might be better tolerated.

  112. Kate,
    Thank-you so much for your comment.What other foods are considered long chain carbohydrates and have a higher starch content?

    1. Terri,
      Starch based foods are polysaccharides…long chains of carbohydrates. My thoughts are that some of these starch foods are more problematic for SOME people (not all)–maybe for those who have bacteria in their small intestine…maybe for those that simply have too many bacteria in their colon. But…let me be clear here–this is just my thoughts on this–some starch foods that may be problematic would be foods like bread, potatoes–especially when cooled in a potato salad (as the starch composition changed when potatoes are cooled), rice, for some examples. I do not remove starch or modify starch from my clients diets unless absolutely necessary due to ongoing symptoms or recurrent small intestinal bacterial overgrowth that is difficult to treat.

  113. Kate,
    Thanks for your reply. I would think you would encourage more greens than starchy vegetables like corn, peas, and potatoes. I don’t know what other vegetables would be considered starchy than the ones I mentioned.

  114. I am to start fodmap diet but looking at some of the food on the list is a bit concerning I also have Ulcerative Colitis so I am confused on what to eat,. I saw a dietician but she just gave me a list of foods to not eat and foods to eat. I mean they have corn on the allowed food and I will not eat corn since being diagnosed with Ulcerative colitis. I am so confused what to eat now.. I don’t think I can live on rice only any suggestions thank you

    1. Anne, I appreciate why you might feel confused. Diet recommendations for ulcerative colitis are very individual and will vary depending on whether you are in a flare or remission. You might need to modify some of the foods on the low FODMAP diet to your personal tolerance. You want to work with a dietitian well versed in dealing with digestive health. Many of my clients with UC can tolerate polenta, quinoa, baked potato and 1/2 sweet potato. I hope you find that you can tolerate a variety of low FODMAP foods.

  115. Hi Kate,

    I have a question about what your clients typically experience with SIBO, especially the ones who don’t also have a history of IBS or bowel problems. I went through a course of Augmentin and am feeling much better – normal bowel movements, less gas, less bloating. It’s a big change. However, I still have at least a bit of putrid-smelling gas almost every day even though I’ve been on a FODMAP elimination diet for a week and a half. It varies with what I eat, which means I’m still reacting to low-or-no-FODMAP foods. Do you find that this happens at first in most of your patients or are they free and clear right away if the SIBO is really gone?

    I’m trying to decide whether I should ask to be retested, and also looking for some points of comparison about recovery length. I’m asking you because I’ve gotten a lot of conflicting info from my doctors — three have implied or said directly to ignore advice from appointments with other people. It would be comforting/encouraging to hear what others usually go through from someone who deals with a lot of SIBO patients, as opposed to just the extreme cases that pop up a lot online.

    I was on the FODMAP diet for a while before my diagnosis and I am really, really tired of the elimination phase. (At this point I feel like if I’m going to smell bad anyway, just let me have my garlic and chocolate!) I’m discouraged about being able to move on to the challenges if I have to start by testing supposedly “safe” foods in the elimination phase first. Maybe I need more antibiotics, or maybe I just need to be patient somehow!

    Thank you, Kate, for all of your work on this blog.

    1. Julia, I can’t say that patients are free and clear right away post antibiotic treatment for SIBO. Some require a second round of antibiotics–some benefit from following up with a prokinetic drug post antibiotic treatment. BEAR in mind, SIBO is caused by something–and identifying the reason someone develops SIBO is an important part of the treatment. Some patients did not have an issue w/ IBS prior to their SIBO diagnosis but after having SIBO, it seems in my practice, that the intestine is a bit more sensitive and doesn’t always ‘bounce back’ to how it was pre-SIBO. Don’t get me wrong, the treatment of diet and antibiotics seems to make the majority of my clients feel vast improvement –but until we figure out why they developed SIBO–and how to fix the underlying cause—whether that be motility issues, malabsorption, inflammation–then the SIBO will just re-occur. When it comes to odorous gas–there may be a number of issues beyond and/or caused by SIBO–malabsorption of fat, protein, hydrogen sulfide production via fermentation — Be sure you are working with a gastroenterologist that is willing to explore other causes along w/ perhaps another SIBO test for your ongoing symptoms.

  116. Kate,

    I was just put on the FODMAP diet by my gastroenterologist. I am obsessed with pickles and am seeing all this conflicting information about whether pickles are low fodmap or not. It is just starting farmer’s market season here in DC, and my favorite pickle guy makes his super sours with no garlic, no sugar — just spices and vinegar. As long as I eat “homemade” rather than store bought pickles, am I okay FODMAP-wise? Thanks for all of this information – so helpful!

    1. Linda–I would think most garlic and onion free pickles would be suitable for the low FODMAP diet. I think it’s awesome that you have a ‘pickle guy’! :)

  117. I’ve had IBS-D for many years, and it recently got very bad. My naturopath recommended I go on a FODMAP diet, along with taking several supplements. I’ve gotten better though not 100%. I must admit though that I havent been on the FODMAP 100% either, primarily because I find it very hard to not eat bread (and some other wheat products, though I try to limit them). I had tried a gluten free diet before and didnt find it made any difference. As a matter of fact, I think it got worse. I also find the different FODMAP lists that I see do contradict each other for certain items. Can you recommend a FODMAP nutritionist in Southern California?

  118. Some strange thing on my ipad and/or blog. Sorry to be redundant…I recently bought Udi’s whole grain hamburger rolls. I reread the label when I got home, saw inulin in the middle of the list of ingredients and threw away the rolls. Thought better of it, retrieved the rolls and froze them. Do you think this product is ok to eat? I’ve been on the fodmap diet for 2 wks and am feeling somewhat better. I’d read comments that some people seem to be able to eat them.

    1. Marsha, you might try the Udi’s rolls during the re-introduction phase. I find added inulin bothers me — in a recent study looking at the effect on inulin on individuals with NON-IBS intestines–inulin was noted to expand the colon w/ gas. Tolerance to inulin will vary person to person though and depends on how much is added as well.

  119. thanks for the quick reply. They will stay in my freezer for the next couple of weeks. Also, avocado…bad?


    1. 1/8 of an avocado is an acceptable portion per meal. It’s a small portion but perhaps as a topping on a salad or sandwich.

  120. Great. So a little on a sandwich (with gluten free, etc. bread) or in some sushi would be ok. Good. Thanks again.

  121. What are your guidelines for small glass of orange juice? Had recently switched to V8 and read that it has beets as an ingredient. Switched back to orange juice. As an aside, I’ve been taking my own salad dressing with me when I eat out. Crackers too. Maybe I’ll start carrying my organic ketchup. This is tough when you’re not home.

  122. Hi. Wrote the note above regarding your guidelines on orange juice. I think oranges are ok on the fodmap diet. Would small servings of juice be ok or are the sugars too concentrated? Wasn’t sure my message was received. Thanks for your help.

    1. Hi Marsha, I would minimize juices on the low FODMAP diet overall– a splash of cranberry or orange juice should be okay–but wouldn’t go for a big cup full as it tends to contain a big fructose load. I might add a splash to seltzer or water to add a hint of juice vs. the going for the juice alone.

  123. I’ve been following your blog and a low FODMAP diet for the past 2 years with much relief. I can’t tell you how excited I am that you will be speaking in Nebraska! I actually contacted the director of the conference and they are allowing me to come to your session. Will be wonderful to finally be able listen to an expert in the field!

    1. Me, again. I know you’ve mentioned that red kidney beans are a big no-no on the low foodmap diet. It’s a big, scary bean. I’ve always substituted white navy beans in soups,etc. I’d love to make a recipe I use using a can of white navy beans, kale and I add chopped up potatoes. Also will now have to leave out the 4 cloves of garlic. Are navy beans on the forbidden list?

      1. Marsha–not sure about navy beans. You could try canned chickpeas or butter beans (1/4 cup/sitting) is okay. Maybe use a little garlic infused oil to get some of the garlic flavor in there.

    2. Wow…Lauri…definitely come by after my talk and introduce yourself! Look forward to meeting you!

  124. Thanks again for the navy bean reply. I’ve never used butter beans, but could give it a try. And will definitely up use garlic infused oil.

  125. Hi Kate,
    Just wanted to say thanks for coming to LaVista! I actually live about 2 miles from the conference center and would have loved to come and thank you personally for all your insight and help through your blog. Hope your flight was good and the conference goes well with lots of interesting questions. I do have a request of course, LOL….can you please mention that tolerance levels are much lower with children. It seems like most of the research data out there is for adults, and with this, Monash food portion sizes are for adults only. Maybe this is just an understood fact, but not sure if everyone picks up on this. And, if you have a moment to mention SIBO, this would be awesome. Seems to me that the risks are probably much higher these days for children due to all the sweets, fruit juices, fruit snacks and etc. handed out to very young children at daycares, churches, school parties, and etc. Thanks again and best wishes tomorrow.

    1. Deborah…YES, YES, AND YES!! Agree…will definitely note this about children portions and tolerance. Actually would love to get a list of foods–particularly fruits and brand names– that are most tolerated by kids. Kiwifruit and starfruit–seem good. Can you help with that? :) I have a talk coming up to parents in Wash DC this summer. And of course, I have several slides on SIBO! 😉

      1. Hi Kate,
        Thanks for the reply. I will put a post out on the parent site for FM children group to see what most tolerate well fruit wise. The moderator of the group does have posted on the top of the FM page a link to her Pinterest board she created. It has a few prepackaged foods that work well for her children and what others have mentioned. She has one child with FM and the other with both Celiac and FM. I know that with the children, everything is tougher. What works for one, doesn’t always hold true for others. The group also formulated a food elimination diet form to note all behaviors and reactions they see in their children, (i.e. sleep issues, eczema, behaviors, mood, bowel changes, and etc.) I think tolerance levels has to do with age and what state their GI systems are in when their child first gets the FM diagnosis. After months of healing time, some can tolerate more. Some can only handle one strawberry in meal and have to start out with 10 gms of sugar or even less in a whole day spread out, which includes their fruit consumption. I know on the vegetable side of things, even carrots are not tolerated by many. I think it’s due to the small amount of mannitol in them. Zuchinni is also questionable due to the smaller amounts of oglio’s. My dd had scary reactions to baby food carrots and we didn’t know about FM at that time. 2 x was enough for me, and she didn’t have them again for years. I knew something wasn’t right. Many struggle also finding safe liquid medications and have to find compounding pharmacies to get their RX’s filled at extra costs. OTC liquid meds can be a nightmare when it comes to this. I think there is one brand of Motrin and one of Tylenol out there made with acceptable sugars. Cold meds and anti acids are really tough. Most have sugar alcohols or HFCS. If someone had direct contact with the pharmaceutical companies, this would be awesome. One of our mom’s recently posted that her dd was given one piece of gum with the sugar alcohols in it and this stopped her 7 – 8 y/o bowels from moving for 4 days. Just an example from the constipation side of things. My dd just started swallowing pills and capsules finally at age 8 and it has been a GodSend. I think you have access to the facebook group, but if not, let me know and I’ll have the moderator give you access. I’m sure the group would highly appreciate you spreading the word. I’ll see what fruits most are ok with from a FM standpoint. We do have quite a few who have chemical reactions (histamine intolerances), full blown allergies, GERD, Celiac and NCGS that co-exist, so many are struggling trying to sort it all out but slowly making progress. We’ll see what they say about fruit from just a FM standpoint. And last of all, so glad to hear you have slides about SIBO!!! Thank you, thank you!!!

      2. Thanks Deborah! I am excited to get the info from the FM group and share with other parents struggling to find the right foods for their children’s sensitive bellies. So Thank YOU!!

  126. Oh, and one other co-existing condition I forgot to mention, is hypermobility disorders. A couple have diagnosed Ehlers Danlos Syndrome, but many others have just mentioned hypermobility. Me and the kids all have hypermobility and quite a few of the EDS criteria they look for. Haven’t even gone there yet doctor wise. Need to work on the SIBO and gut healing first. If we have EDS, it would be the milder type just from what I have read so far. Hope this info all helps.

    1. Yes EH is a risk for SIBO. Agree the notion of having hyper mobility–great flexibility–overlaps with IBS/Sibo risk.

  127. Hi,Kate I forgot to introduce myself,my bad lol My name is Vicky I’m from B.C. Canada I have had Severe Chronic U.C. (Ulcerative Colitis)for almost 2 decades,had Bowel surgeries for it,(j-pouch)then was able to eat any thing,now a few years later and a few pounds heavier I have been put on the Low-FODMAP diet by my GI specialist. Just since Thursday,April 10,14 So I’m just learning what I can eat on a very tight budget and that is mostly Vegan,a tiny bit of dairy-cheddar,mushroom soup Only! No meat! My Low-FODMAP diet I was given to me by my Specialist has beans,lentils and chick peas on the avoid list,I’m worried about my Protein intake! The list I have from my Specialist doesn’t say whether I can have nuts or seeds?? I see I can eat green beans,great but can I have Hemp protein shakes or pumpkin seed protein shakes too? Oh,ya I don’t do tofu,I tried tempeh but couldn’t swallow it! Any help would be appreciated!

  128. Hi,Kate could I ask you for your help with some Low-FODMAP, low fat and Vegan snack’s to make on a low budget I can take with me while traveling? I read you make an oat snack bar,could I have the recipe please? Just to get me by till I buy your book at the end of the month! Thanks so much Kate,Vicky

    1. Here’s the granola bar recipe. http://blog.katescarlata.com/2012/01/11/homemade-and-fab-peanut-butter-chocolate-chip-granola-bars/

      Hope you like them Vicky! And you could try 1/4 cup canned chickpeas or 1/2 cup canned lentils–which are allowed on the low FODMAP diet per sitting (one or the other). Hemp seeds not yet tested. Pumpkin seeds are okay in 2 TB portion. And here are a few low FODMAP vegan ideas: http://blog.katescarlata.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/Final-Vegan-Menu-Planning-July-2013.pdf I do recommend you find yourself a dietitian to work with–especially trying to merge vegan w/ low FODMAP!!

  129. Hi Kate,

    Thank you so much for your wonderful site. I’m trying really hard with the FODMAP diet, as I have both coleliac and now have been diagnosed with fructose malabsorbtion. My IBS symptoms are so bad I’ve actually had to be taken to hospital before to ensure it wasn’t appendisitis. The problem is, being vegan, I’m finding the low FODMAP diet incredibly restrictive. Do you have any suggestions of books/meal plans I can access for vegans on a low FODMAP diet?

    Also, there are many foods I’ve been unable to find any information on. I have to be honest, I was pretty disheartened after spending >$10 on the monash iPhone app only to find it so basic! Some questions are:

    – Is liquorice root low FODMAP (e.g., liquorice and peppermint tea, would this be OK?)
    – Some sites say brocolli & cauliflower is no no, others say it’s ok, same thing with beetroot and purple carrots?
    – is barley grass low FODMAP?
    – coconut water/young coconut meat?
    – are all mushrooms high FODMAP? or are some japanese varities (e.g., shitake OK?) I find I’m ok with enoki but no others!
    – nutritional yeast?
    – nori flakes/seaweed?
    – some sites say certain dried fruits e.g, pineapple is ok, others say no? same thing with berries, are all berries low FODMAP? what about Acai?

    I’m sorry for all the questions, I’m just so scared. Eating has become a terrifying experience. I’m so scared i’ll get sick :(

    1. S–YOU absolutely need some guidance with your diet–especially with your other dietary limitations –gluten and vegan–along with your fear with eating. Don’t try to navigate the diet on your own. But bear in mind–the low FODMAP diet is not designed for long term so would suggest you try to stick w/ foods incorporated on the Monash app and my list for the short term elimination phase. For instance we don’t know about barley grass or acai–not tested yet–so for the short term eliminate these foods.
      Nori seaweed is okay. Nutritional yeast is likely okay. Dried fruits are often high in fructans–though small amounts of dried cranberries–1 TB is okay. Try to stick w/ fresh low FODMAP fruits. Coconut water is okay–as long as other fodmaps are not added. Small amounts of coconut meat okay too. I think it would be best to focus on the many produce options that have been tested–again, the diet is designed for the short term–so after the elimination phase –you could assess your tolerance for some foods that perhaps haven’t yet been tested.
      Here is some info on vegan low FODMAP diet: http://blog.katescarlata.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/Final-Vegan-Menu-Planning-July-2013.pdf

  130. Trying low FODmap diet for 20+ year problem with gas, bloating and reflux AT NIGHT (wakes me every night for up to 2 hours!). First few days on diet were the best in a long time but symptoms have returned despite staying on diet. (Gastroenterologist found evidence of severe constipation, so including 4 prunes + flax meal and liquid from soaked flax seeds in diet. I take this at breakfast time. Could this cause symptoms at night?)

    1. Yes, Dianne, the prunes contain a fair amount of sorbitol and some fructans–so could be exacerbating your symptoms. I would circle back with your GI doctor to find another recommendation on how to manage the constipation. I have found in my practice that chia seeds work well for most of my patients–starting with 1-2 teaspoons added to oatmeal or lactose free yogurt. And slowly increased to max of 2 tablespoons. FODMAPs can draw water into the intestine so can be quite helpful with constipation—but can also cause gas–which is a troublesome side effect for many with reflux or IBS symptoms.

  131. Hi I was just wondering if Soy Life’s blueberry yoghurt’s were fodmap friendly? The ingredients list is as follows: water, sugar, soy protein, apple juice, blueberries, thickeners (from maize and tapioca), dextrose, inulin, canola oil, stabilisers, mineral salt, natural colour, flavour, food acids, live yoghurt cultures. Thanks

    1. Alice–inulin is a definite FODMAP and tends to be a big culprit in symptom triggering. Not sure about the soy protein–probably okay–would avoid anything with whole soybean…but since this product has inulin–would avoid!

  132. What exactly is inulin? I’ve seen it mentioned as a FODMAP ingredient several times on this blog, but I have never seen it mentioned in labels of food that I buy here in California. Does it go by another name here?

    1. Anne, Sometimes you will see chicory root listed as an ingredient. This would be inulin–a FODMAP source (Fructan). Can you seek guidance from a dietitian?–it really does help you manage the diet so much easier!

  133. Hi Kate I have SIBO, and have just come off 2 rounds of antibiotics within the past 2 months. I’m confused about the compounding effects of fodmaps. I’m just staring the low fodmaps diet and taking it really slow eating foods one day at a time. If I have multiple vegetables, for example, in a salad, ie tomatoes, lettuce, and carrots, do i need to restrict myself to a total of 1/2 vegetables total or is it 1/2 for each vegetable for my salad? When combining multiple low fodmaps, each within their appropriate proportion, in one meal sitting, will that result in a combined effect that may result in a flare up?

  134. I was wondering about hotdogs. Grilled hotdogs in the summer are pretty good. In general do you think they’d be safe to eat, particularly regarding garlic. I’ve been watching my diet for quite a while and still can’t tell what triggers gas and cramping. I hardly eat them except during family bbq’s. The aroma is pretty tempting.

    1. Hi Marsha, not sure about hot dogs. Alfresco makes a sweet Italian sausage that appears free of FODMAPs. The Boar’s head all beef skinless hot dog is well tolerated in some kids w/ fructose malabsorption–but can’t guarantee that the hot dogs are free of garlic and onion as they have ‘flavorings’ in ingredient list. I hope you are getting assistance from a dietitian to help you work out the nuances with the diet and your personal triggers.

  135. I have not yet seen a dietician. Following fodmap diet after seeing gastro guy here. Will be in the NYC area over the summer and will try to see someone with more ibs experience at that time. If you have any suggestions that would be great. Northern NJ is where I’ll be. Was about to do a little research and bring my records with me.

      1. I would first see a gastroenterologist to rule out other things.I wasn’t satisfied with the person I was recently dealing with. (gastro guy.) I was wondering about tests to show whether I was digesting foods properly…enzymes. e.g. Or lack thereof. Once I was satisfied that there was no other problem, I would be very open to working with a dietician. I have had a colonoscopy within this past year and everything was fine. He said, “See you in 10 years.” I will certainly follow up on your suggestion with the dietician, and can’t tell you how much I appreciate your help. I think your blog is absolutely fantastic.

  136. Hi Kate! Great blog, thank you for all the helpful hints! I am just starting a low FODMAP diet and I am wondering what drugs are FODMAP safe to take in terms of a multivitamin or an ibuprofen? Any suggestions? Thank you and hope to hear from you soon!

    1. Rosie, the advil caplets should be okay. But ibuprofen isn’t great on the intestine–so it should be used sparingly. The fast act aspirin type products often have sorbitol==so avoid those. Multivitamins–avoid those w/ lactose or sorbitol or mannitol. There are some gummy vitamins w/ sugar–vitafusion or you can get a more holistic vitamin w/ little additives such as basic maintenance by metabolic maintenance http://www.metabolicmaintenance.com/product/Basic_Maintenance

  137. Hi Kate — Thank you for your blog, and all the wonderful information. Can you recommend a FODMAP nutritionist or certified dietician in San Francisco?
    Thank you,
    Kay Taneyhill

  138. Hi Kate, great blog.

    I’ve noticed that you include almonds and almond butter with no limit in your chart of foods that are okay, however Sue Shepherd (the pioneer of FODMAPs) says no more than 10 or it will contain high amounts of Oligos. Are you able to offer any clarity on this? I really miss almonds!

  139. Hi Kate,
    I’m so glad to have found your website. The recipes are delicious! I have been following a FODMAP diet about 6-8 months and while it has helped some, I still have bouts of pain that don’t seem to correlate to food. It’s hard to tell what the triggers are, but I feel like I need to reintroduce more foods into my diet and am scared of the outcome. I’d like to find a good dietician to help me with the process. Do you have any dietician recommendations for Washington DC/Northern VA?
    Thank you!

  140. Hi Kate,

    I am so glad I found your blog. I am excited to try some of your recipes. Can you recommend a dietician in the Denver suburbs?


  141. Do you think chicken sausage seasoned with some fennel would be ok to eat?Organic Murray’s product. Doesn’t list any garlic, onion, etc. was going to have tonight. Going crazy with diet.

  142. I would give the Organic chicken sausages w/ fennel a try! Fresh fennel is okay up to 1/2 cup. I hadn’t heard of Murray’s chicken sausages. Let me know how they taste and how you do! :)

  143. Hi,
    I recently read a blog from someone following a FODMAP diet, and they said their dietitian told them they could eat beans on the diet as long as they soaked them in water. Do you know if this is true?


    1. Melissa, I am not sure that is fully true. When you soak beans –the GOS-galacto-oligosaccharides (FODMAPs) do leach out some in the water….so soaking does help lower the amount of FODMAPs–but likely not enough for most beans. Canned beans are the better option–as they soak in the water for a long time and this is advantageous as more GOS is leached out of the bean. BUT…the only legumes that Monash U has shown to fit into the low FODMAP diet is 1/4 cup CANNED chickpeas and 1/2 cup canned lentils. In the US, Westbrae makes a canned lentil that seems very well tolerated–including in yours truly!

  144. The sausages tasted quite good and I had no ill effects. Ate one, just in case and will have another today for lunch. Based on your recommendation I do have an appt in NY with Dr. Goldstein (Digestive disease specialsit) in July, when I will be in the NY area. I would think you could buy Murray’s brand products in the Boston area. I can get them in South Carolina and NJ. I’ve been using their organic chicken for a while, but this was the first time I’d seen the sausages and I grabbed them. Your help is so much appreciated.

  145. Hi Kate,
    I’m currently on the candida diet, but I’m beginning to think it’s not candida that I have, but rather IBS. The symptoms I experience are gas and a bit of bloating a lot of the time after eating, sometimes mild abdominal pain and the need to use the bathroom a lot (for numbers 2s), sometimes I need to go, sometimes I don’t, but I still get that uneasy feeling, therefore a low fodmap diet could be suitable to me. These symptoms are what lead me to think it could be candida. However, I still want to wait for my candida results first, but in the mean time, are the following foods low fodmap: coconut flour, coconut milk, almond butter?

    Also, just curious about quest bars being low fodmap? (because I love them!) and finally in terms of alcohol, it says to limit to one beer, is that the same for ciders? and are gin and tonics low fodmap?

    Sorry for so many questions!


  146. Hi Kate,
    Just got the 21 Day Tummy Cookbook and it has a recipe in it that says you can use distilled apple cider vinegar, just wanted to make sure that was right, before I made the barbecue sauce.

    The 21 Day Tummy diet has been wonderful for me. We are on Day 15 and I feel better than I have in years. Down about 6 lbs and 4 inches….and my energy is so much higher…and can I just say my husband is very happy with the increased sexy feelings. : )

    Thanks for the help. I couldn’t find anyone local to help me, and this book has really been a tremendous help. Much like an elimination diet for me. I’m telling everyone about it! as you already know.

  147. Hi, Kate, i might have been premature about my reaction to fennel in the chicken sausages I wrote about a few days ago. Just a quick rundown-last Thursday I ate one chicken sausage with fennel. Felt ok. Friday I ate another for lunch. Also had 2 tiny gingersnaps with molasses as one of last ingredients and half udi’s lemon muffin with dried molasses as one of last ingredients. Was feeling very good that day.
    Saturday was pretty awful. Could the fennel have caused this, do you think? Spent most of the day on the couch and in the bathroom. However it only lasted a day and I felt not bad on Sunday. In a way it was enlightening, because I never can figure out what foods cause me problems. If fennel is the culprit, are there other foods in this category that I should avoid? And I’m sorry to bother you with all these questions – is celery a problem for a lot of people? Soy sauce? Mi-del ginger snaps which I adore – small amt. of molasses. And more importantly, how much pasta sauce can I eat at one sitting if I make it from tomato puree. Sorry to run on so long. Thank goodness for your help.

    1. Could be the fennel but I am more suspicious of the molasses. Perhaps small amounts okay -but not in 2 products in the same day.
      Celery has a fair amount of mannitol—and is limited to 1/2 medium stalk about ~4-5 inches.

  148. That’s really good to know. The sausage was really good and versatile…pasta, sandwiches, etc. So I will definitely try it again…one sausage at a time. Glad about the celery as well…it’s one thing to bring your own bread to a diner, but maybe not your chicken salad (assuming the diner puts celery in their chicken salad. And the last thing I asked about….if I make my own pasta sauce, using
    pureed tomatoes, shredded carrots, garlic infused oil, etc. how much sauce can I eat a one sitting? I would use ground beef as well to make it into a meat sauce. I don’t seem to have a problem eating tomatoes.

  149. I was browsing through your blog the other day and noticed a reference to eating rotisserie chicken. I’ve been avoiding buying any since I figured the skin was probably seasoned with garlic and onion powder. Do you think it would be okay to eat, particularly if the skin were removed? Also, Udi’s now has a new muffin, called
    Harvest Crunch. I checked out the ingredients online and they seem fodmap friendly. Wondered if you’d be able to let me and everyone else know. Also, since I have been strictly following your guidelines and this diet, I am doing much better.

  150. Hi Kate,
    My husband was just put on a low FODMAP diet as a way to help with SIBO. I have been “doing my research” and have gotten some conflicting info and wondered if you could help me out. 1. One a few lists I have seen gelato as a low FODMAP food…How can this be if it is made with milk? 2. It seems like he should stay away from beans as well (chick peas, kidney beans). I’m guessing that is all beans, including black beans, lima beans, etc. I have seen one reference to soaking the dried beans for a long time (2 days) and changing the water frequently to leach out the sugars and they should be ok to eat. Do you think soaking the beans will work? Thanks so much!

    1. Hi Christine, The low FODMAP diet seems to be a good option for those with SIBO-but it is not yet evidenced based for this purpose. Diet and SIBO needs to be researched more!!
      Just remember that the low FODMAP diet is designed for the short term–not a long term solution. Gelato would likely have lactose. Small amounts of canned chickpeas or lentils may be tolerated. Canned is better as the FODMAPs (oligosaccharides) are water soluble fibers so some of them would leach out into the water in the can–and you can drain and rinse them away. Canned is likely better from a FODMAP perspective than soaking and draining at home as the beans have been sitting in the water likely for months.

  151. Hi Kate,

    I am SO new to this. I see now that High FODMAP are the foods I need to keep out of my diet. It’s a lot of information to digest!

    Thanks again.

    1. Jane, if you are using the low FODMAP diet to help control IBS symptoms–the diet is done as a ‘learning diet’. After being screened by a GI doctor and screened for celiac disease, you would minimize high FODMAP foods and hopefully gain good symptom control. Then you to the re-challenger or re-introduction of FODMAPs by adding back foods from each FODMAP group in a specific testing manner to assess which FODMAPs are your personal triggers.

  152. Hi Kate,
    I bought “365 everyday value Beef Broth” at Whole Foods. The last three ingredients are “caramel color, organic flavor, natural flavor” are these low FODMAP? My husband can’t do onion or garlic.
    Thanks so much for all the good info!
    We Love the two books, ” 21 day tummy” and “21 day tummy cookbook”. We have learned so much!
    Good eating,

    1. Patty, the term natural flavor can denote onion and garlic. Of course, this would likely only be a problem in savory foods such as a broth, marinara sauce, salad dressing and NOT be an issue in something sweet such as a cookie. So I would avoid the beef broth. In fact, there is not a suitable broth product for the low FODMAP diet in the US. Not that I know about anyway–most have the term ‘natural flavor’ on the ingredient list.

  153. Hi Kate!
    So happy to have found your blog(via Crystal Saltrelli’s site)! I’m new to the low FODMAP world but reading through all the information it makes so much sense to me and is filling in a lot of pieces in my latest health problems puzzle! I have so many questions but i’ll keep it brief. I’m not new to the GI world,being diagnosed with Achalasia when i was 17 (i’m 31 now). Through the years i have learned so much and been on a journey of trial and error filled with ups and downs. Thankfully i quickly discovered how much lifestyle and diet can help or harm anyone with motility and//or digestion issues and have gone the natural route to manage my condition as much as possible. For the past 4ish years tho my stomach/digestion has been really bad and just found out i have gastroparesis as well. I have also been trying to get pregnant for 5 years and am trying to figure out if there is a connection. My question is…I live in Rhode Island and since you are in MA would you know of any good doctors/practitioners in New England that might be able to help me connect the dots? I’m also interested in getting involved somehow to help others that may be going through similar issues or be part of any studies if i can. Any direction would be so appreciated..as is your amazing blog! Thanks so much for your time!

  154. Hi Kate,

    I am so glad that I found your blog and I appreciate all the time you put into it! Thank you so much!

    I have IBS with Constipation and I started the Low Fodmap diet after avoiding several years many kinds of foods! I am so happy now and get hope that I can digest more things when I consider the serving as well…I have constipation and I take Laxaclear which sometimes help and sometimes not. I have cramps in the gut and do not know if it is from the food or the medicine. I am wondering if I should stop taking it for a while to analyse the food in the correct way. What would you recommend?

    I have heartburn as well although I avoid all foods which can cause it and lift the bed, do not overeat…. Can heartburn be caused by IBS and Constipation as well? I avoid acidic fruits and constipation fruits so that there is not much left to eat anymore…..

    I would be glad to get some advise!


  155. Hello Kate,

    Thanks for your very helpful blog! I have heard that sprouting improves digestibility in general (for example for grains and legumes). Do you know if sprouting would have any effect on FODMAPs? (I haven’t come across any info on this anywhere–apologize if I have missed it on your site.)

    1. Brenda–I have been researching sprouting recently as a nutrition ambassador for Way Better Snacks–a food brand that incorporates sprouted seeds, legumes and grains in to their snack chips. Sprouting can be very helpful nutritionally speaking as it lowers the anti-nutrition components such as phytic acid which can bind to important minerals and impact their ability to be absorbed by our body. Sprouting can reduce oligosaccharides (FODMAPs)–this is one article I stumbled upon–http://www.aaccnet.org/publications/cc/backissues/1981/documents/chem58_135.pdf Ideally, it would be great if Monash U or another food analysis group would look closely at the role of sprouted grains and impact on FODMAP content–to get up to date testing and compare the reduction of oligosaccharides to the actual FODMAP cut offs–to see how applicable sprouted foods would fit into the low FODMAP diet. So we know there is a reduction in oligosaccharides–but is it enough to allow these foods in the diet– that I am not sure!

      1. Thanks Kate, for the info. It sure would be great to see some specific FODMAP analysis on this! In the meantime, I guess sprouting wouldn’t hurt for foods that are permitted or borderline. For example, I have read that some people can tolerate spelt sourdough bread, and I spotted sprouted spelt flour at the grocery store recently. Thinking of giving it a try, in hopes that it would improve the chances of being able to tolerate the spelt sourdough bread? Cheers, Brenda

    1. Jan, from what I understand Quorn is made from a mushroom derivative and Monash has approved the plain Quorn mince or crumbles–not the other varieties that contain onion. Tofu is soy protein.

  156. This is my first week on Low FODMAPs diet, in addition to no dairy, wheat, artificial sweetners, and alcohol. I am struggling with ideas. So many of the FODMAPs list tend to differ. I feel like I haven’t strayed from chicken and protein shake with almond milk. I have tried some fruit and had the worst indigestion. :( Can you offer any suggestions? I am thinking of making some soups for at work lunch ideas.?

    1. Sara, work with a dietitian and a good GI doctor! If you can’t tolerate fruit at all –might want to be evaluated for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Rather than further restricting your diet–I urge you to get some guidance!

  157. Hi Kate,

    Thanks for your wonderful site. I’m hoping that in time, it can help me past this difficult time in which I feel like I’ve done all I can and it’s still not good enough to be able to live symptom free. I have GERD, IBS, canola-oil intolerant, and a vegetarian. My gastroenterologist tried to prescribe zenpep which is made from pigs even though I told him I’m vegetarian and asked for an alternatives. Also, my blood test said I made enough of these enzymes so not sure why he prescribed them anyways. I bought some vegetarian ones at the store even though he told me there were none, but they don’t really do the trick. I’ve taken a lot of them per meal and it’s not doing it for me. I feel like the only way I could really truly complete the elimination phase of the FODMAPS diet would be to eat plain LOW FODMAP vegetables, eggs, lactose free milk, a tiny bit of low FODMAP fruit and rice for 6 weeks. When I eat at a friend’s house, restaurant, or any social event, I would need to bring these foods with me as there is never a meal there that I am “allowed” to eat. So, I’ve never even made it to the challenge phase of the “diet”. I’ve had a colonoscopy, numerous blood tests, an endoscopy, taken enzymes, prilosec, avoided as many foods as possible, tried sitting up for 3 hours after every meal, seen a registered dietician who specializes in food sensitivities, etc… but I do have a life too and it’s not realistic for me to cook every single meal and socially isolate myself because I can’t eat food at people’s weddings, parties, birthday dinners, meetings at work with food, etc…. I feel like there’s got to be a better way. I don’t have time to shop for all the ingredients and cook each meal and still work and pay my bills.

  158. Hi Kate,
    Could you please list the locations of your offices? I went into the elimination phase in March and have had a difficult time assessing the challenging phase. As a result, I have not determined much and have lived for six months in the elimination phase. I would love some extra guidance. I just moved into the state and live in the North Shore. Also, are you affiliated with insurance companies? If so, which ones?

    Thank you!

  159. Hi Kate,
    I haven’t found a dietitian in the Northern Virginia, metro-Washington area who works with low-FODMAP. If you know of anyone, I would greatly appreciate a contact.
    Alternatively, do you think the MRT-LEAP plan may be an effective method for dealing with IBS? There is someone who seems to specialize in this area.
    Thanks for any help in this,

  160. Hi Kate,

    I was wondering if you could tell me how much I should limit my sugar intake on the low FODMAP diet. Also, have you heard of pairing glucose-containing foods with high-fructose foods like apples to balance out this excess fructose? (I’m craving apple pie). Thanks for your time!!


    1. Sugar tolerance is individual–but most of my clients can enjoy 2 tablespoons or so per sitting. Obviously, sugar is devoid of nutrition and inflammatory so to not go overboard is a good idea! Yes, you can add glucose or dextrose tabs to foods with excess fructose to help the excess fructose being absorbed (I believe this if being studied at Monash) BUT the extra glucose will not aid absorption of the other FODMAPs in the food. So in an apple–the excess fructose may be better absorbed with dextrose tablets–but it will not aid the absorption of sorbitol or the potential fructans. Glucose (dextrose) tabs might be more effective in foods with excess fructose only such as mango or honey.

  161. Hello,
    I am an IBS-C suffer. I really need help in maintaining a good eating habit and eating the right foods to prevent flare-ups. I am 5’1 and at the moment weighing 98 pounds. My normal weight was 112 pounds. I want to gain the weight that I lost and hoping you can help me.

    Thank you,

  162. I purchased the cookbook with paypal and see no way to download it after the purchase is complete. please let me know how to download it. Thank you

  163. Hi Kate!

    Thank you so much for this amazing blog. I visit it at least once a day!

    A while back I remember you asked for suggestions for upcoming blog posts. I can’t find the post, so I am commenting here. For all the female sufferers out there, I was wondering if it was normal for symptoms to increase around that time of the month. I have found that even following the diet, I have a much harder time managing my symptoms. Any insight and advice you have would be much appreciated!


  164. Steph, I have IBS myself and I can tell you that I always had worst symptoms during that time of the month. I think it has to do with our hormone levels fluctuating during that time which may make symptoms worse. I know I’ve read something about the hormone connections somewhere. It will be interesting to see what Kate has seen in her practice.

  165. Hi Kate! I just wanted to say thank you for the great recipes. I am a low FODmap newbie and for Christmas I made several delicious foods from your recipes. Everyone enjoyed them especially the Sweet Potato Souffle! Your website is helpful but I would really like to find a book or perhaps an app that I can look up an ingredient to determine if I can have it. Any suggestions? Thank you!

  166. 1. History:

    IBS has been with me since at least 2nd grade: distention, gaseous emanations, loose to watery stools 3-5 x day, abdominal pain (usually L side) sometimes relieved by toileting. My cardiologist said I had IBS when I was ~23 (40 yrs ago). Back then, many MDs doubted that it was real. The only treatments were stool softeners & laxatives, no use to me.

    I recently had chemotherapy & pelvic radiation. Due to radiation injury, I have rectal pain when passing large stools 3-5 x day, soft-formed to watery (more watery = more pain), and small incontinences. I had some vaso-vagal episodes, but currently don’t have the L-sided abdominal pain. (I’m wondering if the chemo altered my intestinal lining when it stripped the cells?) The pain I have now is located in the umbilical area. Referred pain? I had a cholecystectomy and recently had a colonoscopy. Aside from the radiation injuries, no other conditions were seen, no specimens taken.

    I eat seafood & poultry, no other meat.

    1. 2. Currently:

      I saw a GE to ask how I could reduce the amount of waste I pass and therefore decrease rectal pain. To my surprise, there are now treatments available for IBS! When did that happen? I tried a low-residue diet, which has worked some. He wants me to continue on it. He recommended a daily probiotic called “Align” and an anti-spasmotic called “Levsin” to use as needed. He said that of his patients who tried the FODMAP diet, it was ineffective; he suspects it was due to non-compliance. He felt that it might be worth a try, though.

      It’s been bad over the holidays: pain, watery diarrhea, a large and embarrassing incontinence. In researching FODMAP-ianism, I can see why patients were non-compliant – it’s complicated, non-intuitive, and Internet sources of information are inconsistent. I can understand that when various researchers test the FODMAP concepts, they will come up with some varying results. If there are conflicting findings for a food, I’m guessing that the safest thing is to avoid it altogether?

      1. Despite the various food lists regarding FODMAP content–if you avoid those provided on my list or the Monash University app–I believe you should be successful in managing symptoms IF you are FODMAP sensitive. Additionally–be sure you have small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and celiac disease ruled out. Work with a dietitian that specializes in GI nutrition to help manage your diet rather than going alone!!

      2. Thank you very much for your reply. I wish you a wonderful New Year and a virtual armful of fragrant roses.

        The local RD (the one my insurance covers) is very nice and truly wants to help, but has limitations. She does not contact the medical side with suggestions like you do or even send in her evaluations and updates. For IBS, she recommended that I eat plenty of soluble fibers to consolidate loose stools, especially apple sauce with its pectin. Based on this, I’d say that she doesn’t know about FODMAPs. (My elderly uncle saw her regularly for a few months for diabetes and I saw her once after I lost so much cancer weight and was unable to eat well.)

        I have found out about those other related conditions and tests from your bogsite. I will have to bounce them off the GE I saw, as he didn’t mention them.

        I’m sick and tired of having pain, distention, and watery stools my whole life. IBS must have contributed mightily to the radiation enteritis I had for 2 straight months during cancer treatment and all those industrial drums-full of neon yellow water I passed with great pain and dehydration. IBS put me at a real disadvantage even prior to my first radiation exposure…..>_<

        I just want to feel gastrointestinally normal some day before I die, fingers, toes, and eyes crossed!

        [Regarding the Captcha math question, 9 minus 6 DOES = 3! I tried to close this window and re-post in a fresh one, but the math question remained the same. I'll have to wait for another time when the problem is different.]

    2. 3. Questions:

      I drink rice milk because I can’t tolerate cow’s milk (hyper-motility, cramps, and diarrhea within a few hours). However, ice cream and cheeses do not seem to bother me overtly. Must I still eliminate them anyway? Does boiling milk denature lactose, like they did in the old diarrhea diet?

      If I get umbilical pain within 10 minutes of eating, isn’t that way too fast to be caused by the foods I just ate? Isn’t it caused by previously eaten foods that are now being moved along by peristalsis?

      There are many different probiotic species: which are necessary, effective, and in what quantities? Some of the brands have milk protein as an ingredient: is that small amount detrimental?

      I’m charting FODMAP foods & cross-referencing low-residue foods. I can see that this is going to be tricky! All suggestions are appreciated. (Too bad that I don’t live in Massachusetts.) Thank you for your valuable time!

  167. Hi Kate,
    I would like to purchase and download your publication with a menu plan and recipes. I see that you have two different publications. I would more of a menu plan than just recipes, should I purchase the 21-day plan or recipes or both? I just didn’t want to have duplications.

    Thanks so much!

  168. Hi Kate,
    I recently had Right Colectomy surgery due to a twisted colon.
    It’s been 6 months now and I find every time I eat I get bolted and gas. I tried to eliminate carbs, fruits and dairy, but nothing is working. It’s so embarrassing. Any suggestions?

  169. Kate

    Can pea powder protein be added to smoothes? It is gluten and soy free… from a yellow pea? My weight is low so trying to keep up protein without eating much animal protein.. suggestions? Thanks Susan

    1. Susan, we really don’t know about pea protein–it has not been tested. Likely it comes in an isolated form–which might be a better option than a pea protein concentrate. Small amounts seem tolerated in my patients–but it is not something I would encourage experimenting w/ during the elimination diet. I would strongly recommend you work with a dietitian to assist you with your weight management and low FODMAP diet goals. Losing weight and being undernourished, of course, is not good for your GI tract.

  170. Kate,

    After years of digestive woes, I’ve recently been diagnosed with IBS-C (although, I am a self-diagnosed Hypochondriac…(isn’t that an ironic statement), and I’ve convinced myself my digestive woes are far more severe than IBS).

    I am committing myself to a low FODMAP diet to try to solve these nagging tummy problems. I googled “is gelato low FODMAP” and found your site.

    I think the Universe brought me to you, and your cookbook – as soon as I read your “About Me”, I thought I was reading about myself. I, too, am a runner, dog lover & foodie! I’m hoping today will be Day 1 in my journey to digestive health and peace :)

  171. Hi Kate!
    Your blog is wonderful, thanks for all of the great info you’re putting on here! What are your thoughts on sushi? How is seaweed FODMAP-wise? (I’m sure the extra sauces aren’t FODMAP friendly, and I have no way of checking the ingredients when I’m at the restaurant.)

  172. Oh- and also- Have you tried Trader Joe’s 21 Seasoning Salute? It’s a spice bottle. It has onion as the first ingredient. Do you think using that to season food is enough onion to cause problems?

  173. Hi! I happened upon your blog as I’m looking for some fun recipes as my husband and I are planning a spa retreat to celebrate our anniversary and we’ll be cooking in a communal kitchen. My husband just started on the FODMAP diet for a week. He’s suffered with GI problems for years and was finally dx with celiac. He’s also lactose intolerant. After getting on board with a gluten free diet, he was still experiencing GI distress. I’m also a RD/CDE and suggested he try the FODMAP diet. After 5 days he was so excited to say, his GI distress is zero! I think we’re on to something. I’m not experienced in the diet, so am grateful for finding your blog. I’m always seeking the science, but reading about everyone’s real life experience is encouraging and bring us hope and support. I may be inquiring more knowledge as we continue this journey to better health and wellness. Thank you

  174. I have had IBS for over 30 yrs. No one said to go on a gluten free diet. I find that stress triggers on onset of pain, but yet, there are times when the pain is unbearable that I do not understand what triggers it. I had just gotten up to read your info and still do not understand what foods to avoid. I am also lactose tolerant. I am unable to gain weight, been trying for yrs to gain as I am underweight so I tried Boost, which made my stomach swell and had a severe episode of IBS. I am also on coumadin, unable to eat green veggies.What info can you give me to help me not to suffer with IBS. Please email me.

    1. Would suggest you find a dietitian knowledgeable in the low FODMAP diet, Linda. So you can get the individualized care you desire. The low FODMAP diet is best undertaken with the guidance of a dietitian.

  175. Hi Kate,
    My family loves cheese and yogurt. We avoid regular milk and drink almond milk when we want milk. I look forward to reading your blog for suggestion on food changes. Both my husband and I have stomach issues.



  176. Just a quick note to say “Thank you!”. You/your website rocks! Thank you for taking the time to share! May God bless you and yours!

  177. Thank you for your website! I have UC and now IBS and am so confused on what to eat. Your website has given me hope. It will take some work but I will do my best. Thanks.

  178. Kate,
    Two of my son’s (ages 13 and 16) just started this diet. I really appreciate your blog and the recipes. I don’t enjoy cooking and this new diet is making it a bigger challenge but the boys have been suffering with IBS for almost a year now and I will try anything. My oldest is nauseas almost every day, he takes several medications but nothing seems to help.
    My questions today is about candy. We are preparing for Easter. They don’t usually get tons of candy anyway but I still need some treats. Can you recommend any safe candy. I am pretty sure dark chocolate is ok, he darker the better but what about jelly beans and other hard candy?

  179. HI Kate,
    I tried the Fodmap diet last Aug when I was diagnosed with pancreatitis. I went on it for six weeks. In those six weeks I went to Toronto for a week to see my beloved Yankees play ball. Not once did I have to get up to run to the bathroom during the game, Unlike in the past where if I were to count would have to use strangers fingers and toes after using my own family’s. It was awesome. When I did go, I could give myself some time to get to the bathroom and not have any problems. BUT when I got home I went off the diet due to me being not sound and body and think hey there is a bathroom here at home and I have no where to go. Six months later I am back to running to the bathroom instead of non chalantly walking there when I want to go. And some times not even making it. So now I am on the diet again. Yesterday was is my 7th day and in so much pain !!!!!!!! Talking with my mom, sister, and husband and came to the conclusion that I am constipated. I need to know find a happy medium. This time I followed the diet to a T !!! Even was eating gluten free items. My question is would adding a little bit of fiber do the trick like cheerios every so often so I won’t get constipated? I think I ate them back in Aug and had no problem eating them. Any suggestions?????

    1. I would encourage you to work with a dietitian to provide more individual advice…someone that can take a deep dive into your medical records and provide sound advice based on your medical history. I can’t do that in a blog format. Some people do experience constipation on the low FODMAP diet as part of the effect of minimizing FODMAPs.. because FODMAPs tend to pull water into the small intestine–the lack of water may constipate some people. Typically, I do add some low FODMAP fiber such as chia seeds, or oat bran to try to minimize this constipating effect. But I do recommend you see a doctor to assess your pain…especially with a history of pancreatitis. Additionally, discuss with your doctor the possibility of you having small intestinal bacterial overgrowth as pancreatic enzyme insufficiency can contribute to this condition and the symptoms mimic IBS symptoms.

  180. Hi Kate,
    First of all, thanks so much for your wonderful website! I have learned a wealth of information and feel more empowered as I work to improve my digestive issues. I was diagnosed with IBS twenty five years ago and had my gall bladder removed about twelve years ago. Unfortunately, gall bladder removal didn’t relieve my symptoms and I have continued to struggle. I also have been taking omeprazole for many years.
    Finally and after much of my own research and meeting with my doctor ,I was given flagyl for possible SIBO. I am seeing a big improvement but I’m concerned with some information I’ve read stating that long term use of PPIs could contribute to SIBO. Blood work also showed I was low in B12. Do you have any thoughts or additional information about long term use of omeprazole and any connections to SIBO? I am now following the low FODMAP diet and am hoping that after I finish with the antibiotic, I will be able to maintain and improve better digestive health.

    1. Jan, PPIs lower acid and as a result can predispose some people to SIBO. Work with your GI doctor to try –if possible–reduce dosage if you can. Low B12 can occur for numerous reasons–it can be due to SIBO–as microbes consume the vitamin. But may be from other causes–so monitor your levels to ensure a B12 supplement boosts your levels. To read my post on SiBO more info on this topic, found here: http://blog.katescarlata.com/2014/01/22/small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth/

  181. Kate, On your shopping list you list Almond Butter, but not Almond Milk. Is there a particular reason for this? The lactose free cow’s milk available where I live seems to affect my system almost as bad as the regular did. I have severe lactose intolerance plus IBS, and have used soy milk without a problem for several years. I now have an intense flare-up of IBS-D and am looking at the FODMAP information to discuss with my gastroenterologist in the next week so the more information I take with me the better.

    1. Carol, Almond milk has not been tested. Because the FODMAPs in almonds are water soluble fibers—it seems likely that the water-soluble fibers may leach into the ‘almond milk’ when it’s being prepared. Some people can’t tolerate dairy all together…perhaps you are one of them….or perhaps the sugars in milk are problematic for you. Or perhaps you have small intestinal bacterial overgrowth? I encourage you to work with a dietitian if possible to help you sort out your food intolerances.

  182. Hi Kate!
    I am a dietitian in CA and have so enjoyed the resources on your blog and website. Thank you! I have a few patients for whom the FODMAP diet has really helped (if they can follow it!) :). However, I would like to learn more about it and digestive health/disease in general. I know you do speaking engagements but I likely cannot travel across the country for them. Do you have any suggestions for me to further education in this area? Conferences? Trainings? Online courses? Webinars? Speakers?

    Also, do you know if kombucha is FODMAP friendly?


  183. Hi Kate,
    Love your site and blog. I think I have the histamine intolerance you talked about in one of your posts. Would you include vinegar as one of the histamine culprits I should stay away from? I’m finding the Low Fodmap diet + antihistamine diet very restrictive and time consuming to make a lot of tolerable things from scratch :(

  184. Hi Kate,
    We are looking into this as a possibility as to why my daughter has been suffering from cramping, nausea, etc. We already know she is lactose intolerant. Who in the Philadelphia area do you recommend for guidance with FODMAP.

  185. I know artichoke is a no no on fodmap. BUT is artichoke leaf extract safe in a supplement? I am taking a liver supplement with artichoke leaf extract
    (100mg) and was wondering if it is ok?

    1. No idea Tomasz…doubt it has been tested. But, I have to say, I have had some patients take artichoke leaf extract for bloating symptoms and it has been very helpful. So….maybe it’s okay??

  186. Hi Kate,

    I hope you can answer this question for me – I have read on several websites that tempeh is low fodmap, but I just read the following in Patsy Catsos’s book “IBS – Free At Last” second edition, page 116: “Soy products such as soy milk, tempeh, miso and soy protein isolate………do contain carbohydrates from the soybean, so they are not allowed during the Elimination Phase of the diet.” I thought all low fodmap foods were allowed during this phase of the diet. I also thought soy protein isolate was acceptable also – in fact on her website Patsy recommends a specific brand of soymilk which is made from soy protein isolate rather than soybeans. I would ask Patsy this question directly, but she does not respond to emails from the general public. Thanks you for all you do!

    1. Hi Rob, Soybean products are very variable from FODMAP content perspective. Monash U has tested tempeh and found it to be low FODMAP–but I have found variable tolerance to tempeh here in the US. It may be that the fermentation process used in different tempeh products, (fermentation lowers Fructans and GOS in tempeh) is different company to company. Tempeh is high fiber too so it might be the fiber content that troubles some people–not sure. The majority of soy milks in the US are made with whole soybeans which would make them potentially high in FODMAPs. 8th Continent is the only US soy milk I have seen that is made with soy protein isolate and appears tolerated by my FODMAP patients. SO bottomline: Whole soybeans or products made with the whole soybean such as soy flour likely contain too many FODMAPs to be allowed on the low FODMAP diet. Monash has tested firm tofu and found it to be low FODMAP–but hasn’t tested soft or silken tofu so that is not allowed at this time. Hope that helps!

  187. Hi Kate,

    I just moved to the Boston area and am in desperate need of a good GI doc. I have been suffering from IBS-C with bloating, terrible (smelly) gas, weight loss and gain between 10lbs a month, fatigue, moodiness, burning stomach pains and acid reflux. I told my doc that I think I have SIBO methane positive and he refused to give me the lactolose breath test and instead gave me the glucose, which was negative. I am miserable living in chronic pain. Are there any GI docs in Boston that your recommend seeing? Unfortunately, I have United Healthcare for insurance which seems to limit my options.



  188. Hi, recently a gastro doctor diagnosed me as having IBS and recommended the FODMAP diet. I have been following the list of allowable FODMAP foods and some are OK and some give me some symptoms. In order to better pinpoint what foods I ate as the culprit I was wondering – once I start experiencing discomfort n my lower abdomen (pain, cramps, bloating, etc) how far back in the past should I look (time wise) when reviewing my food tracker to determine what food may have caused the discomfort? I read it can take up to 30-40 hours upon ingestion for food to completely be digested and expelled, so I do look back that far? And if I experience pain within the first hours (when it is still in the stomach and small intestine) is that an indication that I cannot tolerate the food or is it only when it is further along in the large intestine that is the indicator? Thank you.

    1. Hi Debbie, everyone is quite different when it comes to symptom exacerbation, timing and its relationship to food. After eating a food, it might trouble some individuals within 20 minutes–cramping and bloating–this is likely when a food is malabsorbed in the small intestine–and malabsorbed carbohydrates pull water into the small bowel–such as in lactose intolerance. Fructose typically triggers symptoms earlier–and tends to correlate to its ability to pull water into the small intestine–this generally occurs at about 50 minutes–but transit times vary person to person–so symptom occur may occur sooner or later. Fructans–tend to create symptoms when they enter the large intestine–and are fermented there by gut bacteria. Some individuals–especially those prone to constipation–can have late effects from food–possible the next day or two. So…it’s best to work with a health professional such as a registered dietitian that knows your history and can help guide you!

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